8. It is just the same with the human machine which we call the body. We must learn its parts, and what they are for, how they are made, how they are put together, and how they work. Then we must learn how to take proper care of the body, so that its parts will be able to work well and last a long time.
9. Each part of the body which is made to do some special kind of work is called an organ. The eye, the ear, the nose, a hand, an arm, any part of the body that does something, is an organ.
10. The study of the various parts of the body and how they are put together is anatomy (a-nat’-o-my). The study of what each part of the body does is physiology (phys-i-ol’-o-gy). The study of how to take care of the body is hygiene (hy’-jeen).
1. The body is something like a house. It has an outside and an inside; it has hollow places inside of it, and there are many wonderful things in them.
2. The body is also like a wonderful machine.
3. It is necessary to take good care of the body in order to keep it well and useful, just as we would take good care of a machine to keep it from wearing out too soon.
4. The body has many different parts, called organs, each of which has some particular work to do.
5. In learning about the body, we have to study anatomy, physiology, and hygiene.
6. The study of the various parts of the body, how they are formed and joined together, is anatomy. Physiology tells us what the body does, hygiene tells us how to take care of it.
A GENERAL VIEW OF THE BODY.
1. Parts of the Body.—What do we call the main part of a tree? The trunk, you say. The main part of the body is also called its trunk. There are two arms and two legs growing out of the human trunk. The branches of a tree we call limbs, and so we speak of the arms and legs as limbs. We sometimes call the arms the upper extremities, and the legs the lower extremities. At the top of the trunk is the head.
2. Names of the Parts.—Now let us look more closely at these different parts. As we speak the name of each part, let each one touch that part of himself which is named. We will begin with the head. The chief parts of the head are the skull and the face. The forehead, the temples, the cheeks, the eyes, the ears, the nose, the mouth, and the chin are parts of the face.
3. The chief parts of the trunk are the chest, the abdomen (ab-do’-men), and the backbone. The head is joined to the trunk by the neck.
4. Each arm has a shoulder, upper-arm, fore-arm, wrist, and hand. The fingers are a part of the hand.