In this state is located the first German colony founded in Brazil. It is =Leopoldina=, started as a private undertaking by Busch, Reycke and Freireiss in 1818.
=Frankenthal=, another private colony, was founded in 1822 by Peter Weyll and Saueracker.
Of all the states mentioned, Bahia is the least important so far as German colonization is concerned. This is largely due to the fact that its climate is too tropical to favor such colonization oft an extended scale.
The private colony =Theophilo Ottoni=, in the north-eastern part of the state was founded by a German stock-company in 1851.
Recent state colonies where Germans form a considerable part of the population are =Nova Baden, Francisco Salles, Itajuba, Joao Pinheiro, Constanca, Vargem Grande,= and =Rodrigo Sylva=.
Germans form a considerable part of the population of the capital of the state (Bello Horizonte) and of the important city of Juiz da Fora.
The state colony =Santa Izabel= was founded in 1847. The first settlers were composed chiefly of Rhenish Prussians.
=Santa Leopoldina=, another state colony, was founded in 1857. A suggestion as to the origin of the first settlers is offered by the names of the different districts into which the colony was first divided; viz.; Schweiz, Sachsen, Pommern, Rheinland, Tirol and Holland.
The two above-mentioned are the most northern of the important German colonies in Brazil to-day.
RIO DE JANEIRO (Federal District).
=Nova Friburgo=, the oldest state colony in Brazil, was founded in 1819. The first settlers were Swiss, but since Germans immediately followed them and formed the larger part of the subsequent influx, Nova Friburgo is properly classed as a German colony.
=Petropolis= was made a state colony in 1845. In reality it had its origin as a German colony in 1838. The first settlers were German emigrants originally bound not for Brazil but for Sydney, Australia. On account of the bad treatment they received on the French sailing vessel “Justine” they revolted and compelled the captain to land them at Rio de Janeiro on December 2d, 1837. Here the Brazilian Imperial Government assisted them and at the suggestion of Major Julius Friedrich Koehler gave them employment on the construction of the Serra road between Estrella, located a short distance above Rio, and Parahyba do Sul, located near the border between the Federal District and Minas Geraes. They formed their settlement at what later became Petropolis. On account of the satisfaction which the government found in these immigrants it turned the settlement into a state colony in 1845, as above mentioned.
As in the case of Santa Leopolidina, the origin of individual groups of colonists to Petropolis is indicated by the names of some of the sections into which the colony was divided, viz., Bingen, Ingelheim, Moselthal, Nassau, Westphalen, Unteres-Rheinthal, Mittleres-Rheinthal, Simmern, Castellaunerthal, Untere Pfalz, Obere Pfalz, Oberes Rheinthal, Woestaedterthal, Schweizerthal, Wormserthal, Darmstaedterthal, etc.