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This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 262 pages of information about History of Egypt From 330 B.C. To the Present Time, Volume 10 (of 12).
earth contended for supremacy.  It is most interesting to note that the invaders of Egypt, while impressing their military stamp upon the natives, have been mastered in a very real sense by the spell of Egypt’s greatness; but the language, the key to ancient learning and civilisation, still remained a well-guarded secret.  Here and there one of the Ptolemies or Greeks thought it worth his while to master the hieroglyphic writing.  Occasionally a Roman of the later period may have done the same, but such an accomplishment was no doubt very unusual from the first.  The subordinated Egyptians therefore had no resource but to learn the language of their conquerors, and presently it came to pass that not even the native Egyptian remembered the elusive secrets of his own written language.  Egyptian, as a spoken tongue, remained, in a modified form, as Koptic, but at about the beginning of our era the classical Egyptian had become a dead language.  No one any longer wrote in the hieroglyphic, hieratic, or demotic scripts; in a word, the hieroglyphic writing was forgotten.  The reader of Professor Maspero’s pages has had opportunity to learn how this secret was discovered in the nineteenth century.  This information is further amplified in the present volumes, and we see how in our own time the native Egyptian has regained something of his former grandeur through the careful and scientific study of monuments, inscriptions, and works of art.  Thus it will appear in the curious rounding out of the enigmatic story that the most ancient history of civilisation becomes also the newest and most modern human history.

PUBLISHER’S NOTE

It should be explained that Doctor Rappoport, in preparing these volumes, has drawn very largely upon the authorities who have previously laboured in the same field, and in particular upon the works of Creasy, Duruy, Ebers, Lavisse, Marcel, Michaud, Neibuhr, Paton, Ram-baud, Sharp, and Weil.  The results of investigations by Professor W. M. Flinders Petrie and other prominent Egyptologists have been fully set forth and profusely illustrated.

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EGYPT UNDER THE PTOLEMIES

ALEXANDER THE GREAT AND THE CONQUEST OF EGYPT—­THE REIGNS OP THE PTOLEMIES—­GRADUAL GROWTH OF ROMAN INFLUENCE—­INTRIGUES OF CLEOPATRA WITH POMPEY, CAESAR, AND ANTONY

Alexander the Great in Egypt—­Alexandria founded—­The Greeks favour the Jews—­Ptolemy Soter establishes himself in Egypt and overcomes Perdiccas—­Struggles for Syria—­Beginning of Egyptian coinage—­Art and Scholarship—­Ptolemy resigns in favour of his son Philadelphus —­First treaty with Rome—­Building of the Pharos—­Growth of Commerce—­Encouragement of Learning—­The library of Alexandria—­Euclid the geometer—­Poets, astronomers, historians, and critics—­The Septuagint—­Marriage of Philadelphus to his

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