In our practical problems, as solved on a large escapement model, say we first fit our fork of the proper length, and then by the slot g move the lever back a little, leaving the bankings precisely as they were. What are the consequences of this slight change? One of the first results which would display itself would be discovered by the guard pin failing to perform its proper functions. For instance, the guard pin pushed inward against the roller would cause the engaged tooth to pass off the locking face of the pallet, and the fork, instead of returning against the banking, would cause the guard pin to “ride the roller” during the entire excursion of the jewel pin. This fault produces a scraping sound in a watch. Suppose we attempt to remedy the fault by bending forward the guard pin b, as indicated by the dotted outline b’ in Fig. 103, said figure being a side view of Fig. 102 seen in the direction of the arrow a. This policy would prevent the engaged pallet from passing off of the locking face of the pallet, but would be followed by the jewel pin not passing fully into the fork, but striking the inside face of the prong of the fork at about the point indicated by the dotted line m. We can see that if the prong of the fork was extended to about the length indicated by the outline at c, the action would be as it should be.
To practically investigate this matter to the best advantage, we need some arrangement by which we can determine the angular motion of the lever and also of the roller and escape wheel. To do this, we provide ourselves with a device which has already been described, but of smaller size, for measuring fork and pallet action. The device to which we allude is shown at Figs. 104, 105 and 106. Fig. 104 shows only the index hand, which is made of steel about 1/20” thick and shaped as shown. The jaws B’’ are intended to grasp the pallet staff by the notches e, and hold by friction. The prongs l l are only to guard the staff so it will readily enter the notch e. The circle d is only to enable us to better hold the hand B flat.
[Illustration: Fig. 104]
HOW TO MEASURE ESCAPEMENT ANGLES.
From the center of the notches e to the tip of the index hand B’ the length is 2”. This distance is also the radius of the index arc C. This index arc is divided into thirty degrees, with three or four supplementary degrees on each side, as shown. For measuring pallet action we only require ten degrees, and for roller action thirty degrees. The arc C, Fig. 105, can be made of brass and is about 11/2” long by 1/4” wide; said arc is mounted on a brass wire about 1/8” diameter, as shown at k, Fig. 106, which is a view of Fig. 105 seen in the direction of the arrow i. This wire k enters a base shown at D E, Fig. 106, which is provided with a set-screw at j for holding the index arc at the proper height to coincide with the hand B.