# Watch and Clock Escapements eBook

This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 236 pages of information about Watch and Clock Escapements.

The facts are, the problems relating to the club-tooth lever escapement are very intricate and require very careful analysis, and without such care the horological student can very readily be misled.  Faulty drawings, when studying such problems, lead to no end of errors, and practical men who make imperfect drawings lead to the popular phrase, “Oh, such a matter may be all right in theory, but will not work in practice.”  We should always bear in mind that theory, if right, must lead practice.

## CORRECT DRAWING REQUIRED.

If we delineate our entrance pallet to have a draw of twelve degrees when in actual contact with the tooth, and then construct in exact conformity with such drawings, we will find our lever to “hug the banks” in every instance.  It is inattention to such details which produces the errors of makers complained of by Saunier in section 696 of his “Modern Horology,” and which he attempts to correct by drawing the locking face at fifteen degrees draw.

We shall show that neither C nor C’, Fig. 85, is the theoretically correct position for the pallet center for a tangential locking.

We will now take up the consideration of a club-tooth lever escapement with circular pallets and tangential lockings; but previous to making the drawings we must decide several points, among which are the thickness of the pallet arms, which establishes the angular motion of the escape wheel utilized by such pallet arms, and also the angular motion imparted to the pallets by the impulse faces of the teeth.  We will, for the present, accept the thickness of the arms as being equivalent to five degrees of angular extent of the pitch circle of the escape wheel.

[Illustration:  Fig. 87]

[Illustration:  Fig. 88]

In making our drawings we commence, as on former occasions, by establishing the center of our escape wheel at A, Fig. 87, and sweeping the arc a a to represent the pitch circle of such wheel.  Through the center A we draw the vertical line A B, which is supposed to also pass through the center of the pallet staff.  The intersection of the line A B with the arc a we term the point d, and from this point we lay off on said arc a thirty degrees each side of said intersection, and thus establish the points c b.  From A, through the point c, we draw the line A c c’.  On the arc a a and two and a half degrees to the left of the point c we establish the point f, which space represents half of the thickness of the entrance pallet.  From A we draw through the point f the line A f f’.  From f, and at right angles to said line A f, we draw the line f e until it crosses the line A B.

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