We hold that educating our repair workmen up to a high knowledge of what is required to constitute a high-grade escapement, will have a beneficial effect on manufacturers. When we wish to apply our device to the measurement of the escapement of three-quarter-plate watches, we will require another index hand, with the grasping end bent downward, as shown at Fig. 77. The idea with this form of index hand is, the bent-down jaws B’, Fig. 77, grasp the fork as close to the pallet staff as possible, making an allowance for the acting center by so placing the index arc that the hand A will read correctly on the index D. Suppose, for instance, we place the jaws B’ inside the pallet staff, we then place the index arc so the hand reads to the arc indicated by the dotted arc m, Fig. 78, and if set outside of the pallet staff, read by the arc o.
[Illustration: Fig. 78]
HOW A BALANCE CONTROLS THE TIMEKEEPING OF A WATCH.
We think a majority of the fine lever escapements made abroad in this day have what is termed double-roller safety action. The chief gains to be derived from this form of safety action are: (1) Reducing the arc of fork and roller action; (2) reducing the friction of the guard point to a minimum. While it is entirely practicable to use a table roller for holding the jewel pin with a double-roller action, still a departure from that form is desirable, both for looks and because as much of the aggregate weight of a balance should be kept as far from the axis of rotation as possible.
We might as well consider here as elsewhere, the relation the balance bears to the train as a controlling power. Strictly speaking, the balance and hairspring are the time measurers, the train serving only two purposes: (a) To keep the balance in motion; (b) to classify and record the number of vibrations of the balance. Hence, it is of paramount importance that the vibrations of the balance should be as untrammeled as possible; this is why we urge reducing the arc of connection between the balance and fork to one as brief as is consistent with sound results. With a double-roller safety action we can easily reduce the fork action to eight degrees and the roller action to twenty-four degrees.
Inasmuch as satisfactory results in adjustment depend very much on the perfection of construction, we shall now dwell to some extent on the necessity of the several parts being made on correct principles. For instance, by reducing the arc of engagement between the fork and roller, we lessen the duration of any disturbing influence of escapement action.