We will next take up the double roller and fork action, and also consider in many ways the effect of less angles of action than ten degrees. This matter now seems of more importance, from the fact that we are desirous to impress on our readers that there is no valid reason for adopting ten degrees of fork and roller action with the table roller, except that about this number of degrees of action are required to secure a reliable safety action. With the double roller, as low as six degrees fork and pallet action can be safely employed. In fork and pallet actions below six degrees of angular motion, side-shake in pivot holes becomes a dangerous factor, as will be explained further on. It is perfectly comprehending the action of the lever escapement and then being able to remedy defects, that constitute the master workman.
HOW TO MEASURE THE ANGULAR MOTION OF AN ESCAPE WHEEL.
[Illustration: Fig. 76]
We can also make use of our angle-testing device for measuring our escape-wheel action, by letting the clasp embrace the arbor of the escape wheel, instead of the pallet staff. We set the index arc as in our former experiments, except we place the movable index D, Fig. 76, so that when the engaged tooth rests on the locking face of a pallet, the index hand stands at the extreme end of our arc of twelve degrees. We next, with our pointed pegwood, start to move the fork away from the bank, as before, we look sharp and see the index hand move backward a little, indicating the “draw” on the locking face. As soon as the pallet reaches the impulse face, the hand A moves rapidly forward, and if the escapement is of the club-tooth order and closely matched, the hand A will pass over ten and a half degrees of angular motion before the drop takes place.
[Illustration: Fig. 77]
We will warn our readers in advance, that if they make such a testing device they will be astonished at the inaccuracy which they will find in the escapements of so-called fine watches. The lock, in many instances, instead of being one and a half degrees, will oftener be found to be from two to four degrees, and the impulse derived from the escape wheel, as illustrated at Fig. 76, will often fall below eight degrees. Such watches will have a poor motion and tick loud enough to keep a policeman awake. Trials with actual watches, with such a device as we have just described, in conjunction with a careful study of the acting parts, especially if aided by a large model, such as we have described, will soon bring the student to a degree of skill unknown to the old-style workman, who, if a poor escapement bothered him, would bend back the banking pins or widen the slot in the fork.