[Illustration: Fig. 63]
We show in Fig. 61 the fork as separated from the roller, but in Fig. 62, which is a side view, we show the fork and jewel pin as engaged. When drawing a fork and roller action it is safe to show the guard pin as if in actual contact with the roller. Then in actual construction, if the parts are made to measure and agree with the drawing in the gray, that is, before polishing, the process of polishing will reduce the convex edge of the roller enough to free it.
It is evident if thought is given to the matter, that if the guard pin is entirely free and does not touch the roller in any position, a condition and relation of parts exist which is all we can desire. We are aware that it is usual to give a considerable latitude in this respect even by makers, and allow a good bit of side shake to the lever, but our judgment would condemn the practice, especially in high-grade watches.
Grossmann, in his essay on the detached lever escapement, adopts one and a half degrees lock. Now, we think that one degree is ample; and we are sure that every workman experienced in the construction of the finer watches will agree with us in the assertion that we should in all instances seek to reduce the extent of all frictional surfaces, no matter how well jeweled. Acting under such advice, if we can reduce the surface friction on the lock from one and a half degrees to one degree or, better, to three-fourths of a degree, it is surely wise policy to do so. And as regards the extent of angular motion of the lever, if we reduce this to six degrees, exclusive of the lock, we would undoubtedly obtain better results in timing.
We shall next consider the effects of opening the bankings too wide, and follow with various conditions which are sure to come in the experience of the practical watch repairer. It is to be supposed in this problem that the fork and roller action is all right. The reader may say to this, why not close the banking? In reply we would offer the supposition that some workman had bent the guard pin forward or set a pallet stone too far out.
We have now instructed our readers how to draw and construct a lever escapement complete, of the correct proportions, and will next take up defective construction and consider faults existing to a lesser or greater degree in almost every watch. Faults may also be those arising from repairs by some workman not fully posted in the correct form and relation of the several parts which go to make up a lever escapement. It makes no difference to the artisan called upon to put a watch in perfect order as to whom he is to attribute the imperfection, maker or former repairer; all the workman having the job in hand has to do is to know positively that such a fault actually exists, and that it devolves upon him to correct it properly.