Now, while the writer is willing to admit that a one-degree lock in a sound, well-made escapement is ample, still he is not willing to allow of a looseness of drawing to incorporate to the extent of one degree in any mechanical matter demanding such extreme accuracy as the parts of a watch. It has been claimed that such defects can, to a great extent, be remedied by setting the escapement closer; that is, by bringing the centers of the pallet staff and escape wheel nearer together. We hold that such a course is not mechanical and, further, that there is not the slightest necessity for such a policy.
By making the drawings large, as we have already suggested and insisted upon, we can secure an accuracy closely approximating perfection. As, for instance, if we wish to get a lock of one and a half degrees on the locking face of the entrance pallet E, we measure down on the arc c’’ from its intersection with the peripheral line m one and a half degrees, and establish the point r and thus locate the outer angle of the entrance pallet E, so there will really be one and a half degrees of lock; and by measuring down on the arc d’ ten degrees from its intersection with the peripheral line m, we locate the point s, which determines the position of the inner angle of the entrance pallet, and we know for a certainty that when this inner angle is freed from the tooth it will be after the pallet (and, of course, the lever) has passed through exactly ten degrees of angular motion.
For locating the inner angle of the exit pallet, we measure on the arc d’, from its intersection with the peripheral line m, eight and a half degrees, and establish the point n, which locates the position of this inner angle; and, of course, one and a half degrees added on the arc d’ indicates the extent of the lock on this pallet. Such drawings not only enable us to theorize to extreme exactness, but also give us proportionate measurements, which can be carried into actual construction.
We will now take up the club-tooth form of the lever escapement. This form of tooth has in the United States and in Switzerland almost entirely superceded the ratchet tooth. The principal reason for its finding so much favor is, we think, chiefly owing to the fact that this form of tooth is better able to stand the manipulations of the able-bodied watchmaker, who possesses more strength than skill. We will not pause now, however, to consider the comparative merits of the ratchet and club-tooth forms of the lever escapement, but leave this part of the theme for discussion after we have given full instructions for delineating both forms.