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Watch and Clock Escapements eBook

This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 202 pages of information about Watch and Clock Escapements.
horologist, G. Clement, solved the problem in 1675 with his rack escapement and recoil anchor.  In the interval other means were invented, especially the addition of a second pendulum to correct the irregularities of the first.  Such an escapement is pictured in Fig. 152.  The verge is again vertical and carries near its upper end two arms D D, which are each connected by a cord with a pendulum.  The two pendulums oscillate constantly in the inverse sense the one to the other.

[Illustration:  Fig. 154]

[Illustration:  Fig. 155]


We show another escapement with two pendulums in Fig. 153.  These are fixed directly upon two axes, each one carrying a pallet P P’ and a segment of a toothed wheel D D, which produces the effect of solidarity between them.  The two pendulums oscillate inversely one to the other, and one after the other receives an impulse.  This escapement was constructed by Jean Baptiste Dutertre, of Paris.

Fig. 154 shows another disposition of a double pendulum.  While the pendulum here is double, it has but one bob; it receives the impulse by means of a double fork F. C C represents the cycloidal curves and are placed with a view of correcting the inequality in the duration of the oscillations.  In watches the circular balances did not afford any better results than the regulating rods or rules of the clocks, and the pendulum, of course, was out of the question altogether; it therefore became imperative to invent some other regulating system.

[Illustration:  Fig. 156]

[Illustration:  Fig. 157]

It occured to the Abbe d’Hautefeuille to form a sort of resilient mechanism by attaching one end of a hog’s bristle to the plate and the other to the balance near the axis.  Though imperfect in results, this was nevertheless a brilliant idea, and it was but a short step to replace the bristle with a straight and very flexible spring, which later was supplanted by one coiled up like a serpent; but in spite of this advancement, the watches did not keep much better time.  Harrison, the celebrated English horologist, had recourse to two artifices, of which the one consisted in giving to the pallets of the escapement such a curvature that the balance could be led back with a velocity corresponding to the extension of the oscillation; the second consisted of an accessory piece, the resultant action of which was analogous to that of the cycloidal curves in connection with the pendulum.


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