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This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 202 pages of information about Watch and Clock Escapements.

If we reason carefully on the matter, we will readily comprehend that we can move the locking jewel, i.e., set it so the unlocking will take place in reality before the impulse jewel has passed through the entire five degrees of arc embraced between the radial lines c e and c g, Fig. 141, and yet have the tooth attack the jewel after the five degrees of arc.  In practice it is safe to set the discharging jewel h so the release of the held tooth A^1 will take place as soon as the tooth A^2 is inside the principal line of the escape wheel.  As we previously explained, the contact between A^2 and the impulse jewel i would not in reality occur until the said jewel i had fully passed through the arc (five degrees) embraced between the radial lines c e and c g.

At this point we will explain why we drew the front fan of the escape-wheel teeth at the angle of twenty-eight degrees.  If the fan of impulse jewel i is set radial to the axis of the balance, the engagement of the tooth A^2 would be at a disadvantage if it took place prior to this jewel passing through an arc of five degrees inside the periphery of the escape wheel.  It will be evident on thought that if an escape-wheel tooth engaged the impulse stone before the five-degrees angle had passed, the contact would not be on its flat face, but the tooth would strike the impulse jewel on its outer angle.  A continued inspection will also reveal the fact that in order to have the point of the tooth engage the flat surface of the impulse pallet the impulse jewel must coincide with the radial line c g.  If we seek to remedy this condition by setting the impulse jewel so the face is not radial, but inclined backward, we encounter a bad engaging friction, because, during the first part of the impulse action, the tooth has to slide up the face of the impulse jewel.  All things considered, the best action is obtained with the impulse jewel set so the acting face is radial to the balance staff and the engagement takes place between the tooth and the impulse jewel when both are moving with equal velocities, i.e., when the balance is performing with an arc (or motion) of 11/4 revolutions or 225 degrees each way from a point of rest.  Under such conditions the actual contact will not take place before some little time after the impulse jewel has passed the five-degree arc between the lines c e and c g.

THE DROP AND DRAW CONSIDERED.

Exactly how much drop must be allowed from the time the tooth leaves the impulse jewel before the locking tooth engages the locking jewel will depend in a great measure on the perfection of workmanship, but should in no instance be more than what is absolutely required to make the escapement safe.  The amount of draw given to the locking stone c is usually about twelve degrees to the radial line k a.  Much of the perfection of the chronometer escapement will always depend on the skill of the escapement adjuster and not on the mechanical perfection of the parts.

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