Wage Earning and Education eBook

This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 130 pages of information about Wage Earning and Education.

[Illustration:  Diagram 8.—­Percentage of women in men’s and women’s clothing and seven other important women employing industries receiving under $8, $8 to $12, and $12 and over per week.]

The comparison of the wages paid men employees shown in Diagram 9 is somewhat less favorable.  Women’s clothing ranks with printing and publishing as to the proportion of male workers receiving the highest specified earnings per week.  Men’s clothing ranks sixth among the industries compared.

The various kinds of work do not command fixed wage rates, as do many other types of industrial employment.  Quantity of output as well as quality of workmanship is an important factor in the determination of wages.  Men generally turn out a greater output than women on the same kind of work and piece workers usually earn more than those paid by the week.  The lowest, average, and highest wages for each of the principal occupations in the two branches of the industry are shown in Tables 16 and 17.

One reason often given for the higher earnings received by workers on women’s garments is the greater irregularity of employment in this branch of the industry.  This, however, does not sufficiently account for the difference.  The most weighty reason is that a higher degree of adaptability is required of workers than is the case in the manufacture of men’s clothing.

[Illustration:  Diagram 9.—­Percentage of men in men’s and women’s clothing and seven other manufacturing industries receiving under $18, $18 to $25, and $25 and over per week]

TABLE 16.—­WAGES FOR FULL-TIME WORKING WEEK, WOMEN’S CLOTHING, CLEVELAND, 1915

---------------------------------------+--------+------
----+---------+ Workers | Lowest | Average | Highest | ---------------------------------------+--------+----------+
---------+ Assorters, women | $6.00 | $8.75 | $14.00 | Hand sewers, women | 6.00 | 10.00 | 20.00 | Trimming girls | 7.00 | 10.25 | 15.00 | Operators,* women | 6.00 | 12.00 | 30.00 | Sample makers, women | 10.00 | 12.75 | 15.00 | Examiners, women | 8.00 | 13.50 | 18.00 | Models, suit and cloak | 10.00 | 15.25 | 21.00 | Forewomen | 9.00 | 16.25 | 25.00 | Operators,* men | 7.00 | 17.75 | 50.00 | Pressers, men | 9.00 | 18.25 | 35.00 | Cutters,Sec. men | 8.00 | 19.25 | 30.00 | Pattern graders, suit and cloak, men | 13.00 | 22.00 | 27.50 | Sample makers, men | 13.00 | 22.50 | 25.00 | Examiners, men | 16.00 | 25.00 | 45.00 | Head tailors, men | 18.00 | 25.00 | ... | Foremen | 14.00 | 30.00 | 75.00 | ---------------------------------------+--------+----------+---------+ *:  Includes piece and section operators and helpers to head tailors Sec.:  Includes all cutters except foremen, apprentices, and pattern graders

TABLE 17.—­AVERAGE WAGES FOR FULL-TIME WORKING WEEK FOR SIMILAR WORKERS, MEN’S AND WOMEN’S CLOTHING, CLEVELAND, 1915

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