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This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 130 pages of information about Wage Earning and Education.

2.  Industrial training in school has to do chiefly with preparation for work in the skilled trades.  Training for semi-skilled occupations can be given more effectively and cheaply in the factories than in the schools.

3.  As a rule, industrial training is not practicable in elementary schools, for the reason that the number of boys in the average elementary school who are likely to enter the skilled trades and who are also old enough to profit by industrial training is too small to permit the organization of classes.

4.  The most important contribution to vocational education the elementary schools can make consists in getting the children through the course fast enough so that two or three years before the end of the compulsory attendance period they will enter an intermediate or vocational school where some kind of industrial training is possible.

5.  The survey recommends the establishment of a general industrial course in the junior high school, made up chiefly of instruction in the applications of mathematics, drawing, physics, and chemistry to the commoner industrial processes.  The course should also include the study of economic and working conditions in the principal industrial occupations.

6.  One or two vocational schools equipped to offer specialized trade training for boys and girls between the ages of 14 and 17 are needed.  At present a gap of from one to two years exists between the end of the compulsory attendance period and the entrance age in practically all the skilled trades, which could well be employed in direct preparation for trade work.  Such schools would relieve the first and second year classes of the technical high schools of many pupils these schools do not want and cannot adequately provide for.  General as well as special courses should be offered, although pupils should be encouraged to select a particular occupation and devote at least one year to intensive preparation for it.

7.  The survey favors the extension of the compulsory attendance period for boys to the age of 16.  The industries of Cleveland have little or nothing worth while to offer boys below this age.

8.  The best form of trade-extension training is that provided in a few establishments which maintain apprentice schools in their plants.  This plan is feasible only in large establishments.  It will never take care of more than a small proportion of the young workers who need supplementary technical training.

9.  Plans for trade-extension training of apprentices depending on the cooeperation of employers have met with slight success.  The principle difficulty is that the sacrifices they involve are borne by a relatively small number of employers while the benefits are reaped by the industry in general.  Either the industry as a whole or the community should bear the cost of such training.

10.  The vocational interests of young workers and the social interests of the community demand the establishment of a system of continuation training for all young people in employment, up to the age of 18 years.  The classes should be held during working hours and attendance should be compulsory.

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