Wage Earning and Education eBook

This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 130 pages of information about Wage Earning and Education.
is that a large majority of them are not Clevelanders.  Almost exactly half of the men in gainful employment were born outside the United States and, due to the rapid growth of the city, there has been a considerable influx of workers from the surrounding country in recent years, so that a large proportion even of the American working population was born, brought up, and educated in some other place.  The number and per cent of foreign born, of foreign or mixed parentage but born in this country, and of native parentage is shown in Table 2.

TABLE 2.—­NATIVITY OF THE WORKING POPULATION IN CLEVELAND.  U.S.  CENSUS, 1910

----------------------------+-------------------+------
----------- | Men | Women +--------+----------+--------+-------- Nativity | Number | Per cent | Number |Per cent ----------------------------+--------+----------+--------+--
------ Foreign born | 96,291 | 50 | 16,673 | 31 Foreign or mixed parentage | 55,074 | 28 | 24,275 | 44 Native parentage | 42,713 | 22 | 13,860 | 25 ----------------------------+--------+----------+--------+--
------ Total |194,078 | 100 | 54,808 | 100 ----------------------------+--------+----------+--------+--
------

More than three-fourths are foreign or of foreign or mixed parentage.  The proportion of those born in this country of American parentage is approximately the same for both sexes, but the number of women workers of mixed parentage is relatively much larger than among the men.  Roughly, of each 10 men employed in gainful occupations, five, and of each 10 working women, three, were born abroad.

The large proportion of foreigners in the trades has an important bearing on the problem of vocational training.  Some of the skilled occupations are monopolized by foreign labor to such an extent that they offer a very limited field of employment for native workmen.  Cabinet making, tailoring, molding, blacksmithing, baking, and shoe making, are examples.  Some of these trades have practically ceased to recruit from American labor.  This condition has to be constantly borne in mind in planning training courses to prepare boys for the skilled trades, because of the marked disparity which often exists between the size of a trade and the field of opportunity it presents for boys of native birth.

CHAPTER IV

THE FUTURE WAGE-EARNERS OF CLEVELAND

In 1915 there were in Cleveland approximately 50,000 boys between the ages of six and 15, and 56,000 girls between the ages of six and 16, the age period during which school attendance is required by law.  Of these 106,000 children approximately 37,000 boys and 38,000 girls were enrolled in the public schools.  Exact data as to those attending private and parochial schools are not available.  The total enrollment in such schools has been variously estimated as between 25,000 and 30,000.

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Wage Earning and Education from Project Gutenberg. Public domain.
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