5. Show why transportation is so vital to modern industry and agriculture.
6. Explain how it was possible to secure so many people to labor in American industries.
7. Trace the steps in the rise of organized labor before 1860.
8. What political and economic reforms did labor demand?
9. Why did the East and the South seek closer ties with the West?
10. Describe the economic forces which were drawing the East and the West together.
11. In what way was the South economically dependent upon the North?
12 State the national policies generally favored in the North and condemned in the South.
13. Show how economic conditions in the South were unfavorable to industry.
14. Give the Southern explanation of the antagonism between the North and the South.
=The Inventions.=—Assign one to each student. Satisfactory accounts are to be found in any good encyclopedia, especially the Britannica.
=River and Lake Commerce.=—Callender, Economic History of the United States, pp. 313-326.
=Railways and Canals.=—Callender, pp. 326-344; 359-387. Coman, Industrial History of the United States, pp. 216-225.
=The Growth of Industry, 1815-1840.=—Callender, pp. 459-471. From 1850 to 1860, Callender, pp. 471-486.
=Early Labor Conditions.=—Callender, pp. 701-718.
=Early Immigration.=—Callender, pp. 719-732.
=Clay’s Home Market Theory of the Tariff.=—Callender, pp. 498-503.
=The New England View of the Tariff.=—Callender, pp. 503-514.
THE PLANTING SYSTEM AND NATIONAL POLITICS
James Madison, the father of the federal Constitution, after he had watched for many days the battle royal in the national convention of 1787, exclaimed that the contest was not between the large and the small states, but between the commercial North and the planting South. From the inauguration of Washington to the election of Lincoln the sectional conflict, discerned by this penetrating thinker, exercised a profound influence on the course of American politics. It was latent during the “era of good feeling” when the Jeffersonian Republicans adopted Federalist policies; it flamed up in the contest between the Democrats and Whigs. Finally it raged in the angry political quarrel which culminated in the Civil War.
SLAVERY—NORTH AND SOUTH
=The Decline of Slavery in the North.=—At the time of the adoption of the Constitution, slavery was lawful in all the Northern states except Massachusetts. There were almost as many bondmen in New York as in Georgia. New Jersey had more than Delaware or Tennessee, indeed nearly as many as both combined. All told, however, there were only about forty thousand in the North as against nearly seven hundred thousand in the South. Moreover, most of the Northern slaves were domestic servants, not laborers necessary to keep mills going or fields under cultivation.