M. Farrand, The Framing of the Constitution of the United States.
P.L. Ford, Essays on the Constitution of the United States.
The Federalist (in many editions).
G. Hunt, Life of James Madison.
A.C. McLaughlin, The Confederation and the
1. Account for the failure of the Articles of Confederation.
2. Explain the domestic difficulties of the individual states.
3. Why did efforts at reform by the Congress come to naught?
4. Narrate the events leading up to the constitutional convention.
5. Who were some of the leading men in the convention? What had been their previous training?
6. State the great problems before the convention.
7. In what respects were the planting and commercial states opposed? What compromises were reached?
8. Show how the “check and balance” system is embodied in our form of government.
9. How did the powers conferred upon the federal government help cure the defects of the Articles of Confederation?
10. In what way did the provisions for ratifying and amending the Constitution depart from the old system?
11. What was the nature of the conflict over ratification?
=English Treatment of American Commerce.=—Callender, Economic History of the United States, pp. 210-220.
=Financial Condition of the United States.=—Fiske, Critical Period of American History, pp. 163-186.
=Disordered Commerce.=—Fiske, pp. 134-162.
=Selfish Conduct of the States.=—Callender, pp. 185-191.
=The Failure of the Confederation.=—Elson, History of the United States, pp. 318-326.
=Formation of the Constitution.=—(1) The plans before the convention, Fiske, pp. 236-249; (2) the great compromise, Fiske, pp. 250-255; (3) slavery and the convention, Fiske, pp. 256-266; and (4) the frame of government, Fiske, pp. 275-301; Elson, pp. 328-334.
=Biographical Studies.=—Look up the history and services of the leaders in the convention in any good encyclopedia.
=Ratification of the Constitution.=—Hart, History Told by Contemporaries, Vol. III, pp. 233-254; Elson, pp. 334-340.
=Source Study.=—Compare the Constitution and Articles of Confederation under the following heads: (1) frame of government; (2) powers of Congress; (3) limits on states; and (4) methods of amendment. Every line of the Constitution should be read and re-read in the light of the historical circumstances set forth in this chapter.
THE CLASH OF POLITICAL PARTIES