The only known King
Bocchoris belongs to the eighth
century B.C., whereas the Exodus is traditionally placed not
later than the sixteenth.
 See Exod. xvii.
 i.e. an ass.
The idea that this animal was sacred to the
Jews was so prevalent among ‘the Gentiles’ that Josephus takes
the trouble to refute it.
 Cp. Lev. xvi. 3,
’a young bullock for a sin offering,
and a ram for a burnt offering.’ Tacitus’ reasons are of
course errors due to the prevalent confusion of Jewish and
 Cp. Luke xviii. 12, ‘I fast twice a week.’
 Cp. Deut. v. 15.
 Cp. Lev. xxv. 4,
’... in the seventh year shall be a
sabbath of solemn rest for the land, a sabbath unto the Lord:
thou shalt neither sow thy field, nor prune thy vineyard.’
 The seventh day being
named after Cronos or Saturn (cp.
chap. 2, note 464).
 Reading commeent (Woelfflin).
 This refers to proselytes,
who, like Jews resident
abroad, contributed annually to the Temple treasury. They
numbered at this time about four millions. Romans naturally
regarded this diversion of funds with disfavour.
 Jewish exclusiveness
always roused Roman indignation,
and ‘hatred of the human race’ was the usual charge against
Christians (see Ann. xv. 44).
 The strict regulations
of Deut. xxii. &c. give a strange
irony to this slander. Most of these libels originated in
 ‘A people,’
says the elder Pliny, ’distinguished by
their contemptuous atheism.’
 Agnati, as used
here and in Germ. 19 means a child
born after the father has made his will and therein specified
the number of his children. The mere birth of such a child
invalidated any earlier will that the father had made, but the
fact of its birth might be concealed by making away with the
baby. This crime seems to have been not uncommon, but there is
no evidence that ‘exposure of infants’ was permitted.
 Josephus also alludes
to this belief that the corruption
of disease chained the soul to the buried body, while violent
death freed it to live for ever in the air and protect
 Under the kings cremation
was an honourable form of
burial, but in Babylon the Jews came to regard fire as a
sacred element which should not be thus defiled.
 This was over the door
of the Temple. Aristobulus gave
it as a present to Pompey.