Chap. 18.
 The Bructeri lived between
the Lippe and the Upper Ems,
the Tencteri along the eastern bank of the Rhine, between its
tributaries the Ruhr and the Sieg, i.e. opposite Cologne.
 i.e. about 12,000
men. The bulk of the Fifth and a
detachment of the Fifteenth had gone to Italy.
 i.e. Frisii, Bructeri, Tencteri, &c.
 At Mainz.
 His other legion was IV Macedonica.
 Cp. chap. 20.
 He commanded the First
legion, which had joined the main
column at Bonn.
 Gellep. Some words
are lost, perhaps giving the distance
 See note 282.
 At Gelduba.
 Cp. iii. 61.
 The Menapii lived between
the Maas and the Scheldt; the
Morini on the coast in the neighbourhood of Boulogne. They
were a proverb for ‘the back of beyond’.
 See i. 56, note 106.
 i.e. the gate on to the street leading to Head-quarters.
THE RELIEF OF VETERA
Such was the course of events in Germany up to the date of the 31 battle of Cremona. News of this arrived by letter from Antonius Primus, who enclosed a copy of Caecina’s edict, and Alpinius Montanus, who commanded one of the defeated auxiliary cohorts, came in person to confess that his party had been beaten. The troops were variously affected by the news. The Gallic auxiliaries, who had no feelings of affection or dislike to either party and served without sentiment, promptly took the advice of their officers and deserted Vitellius. The veterans hesitated; under pressure from Flaccus and their officers they eventually took the oath of allegiance, but it was clear from their faces that their hearts were not in it, and while repeating the rest of the formula they boggled at the name of Vespasian, either muttering it under their breath or more often omitting it altogether. Their suspicions were further inflamed 32 when Antonius’ letter to Civilis was read out before the meeting; it seemed to address Civilis as a member of the Flavian party, and to argue hostility to the German army. The news was next brought to the camp at Gelduba, where it gave rise to the same comments and the same scenes. Montanus was sent to carry instructions to Civilis that he was to cease from hostilities and not to make war on Rome under a false pretext; if it was to help Vespasian that he had taken arms, he had now achieved his object. Civilis at first replied in guarded terms. Then, as he saw that Montanus was an impetuous person who would welcome