Vitellius had reduced the strength of the legions (cp. ii. 94).
 Because it would weaken the position of Vitellius.
 They lived north of
the Batavi, between the Zuider Zee
and the North Sea.
 ii. 29.
 Caligula’s only
trophy had been helmetfuls of stones and
shells from the sea-shore of Germany.
 Living in Friesland, north-east of the Zuider Zee.
 Reading applicata
(Andresen) instead of occupata,
which gives no sense. The camp was probably somewhere near
 The Nervii were a Gallic
tribe living on the Sambre,
with settlements at Cambray, Tournay, Bavay. Ritter’s
alteration of Germanorum to Cugernorum is very probably
right. They lived about a dozen miles west of Vetera, and are
thus a likely recruiting-ground. They were of German origin,
so if Germanorum is right, the reference will still be to
them and the Tungri and other German Settlements on the east
of the Rhine.
 See ii. 42, note 301.
Here, however, it is not
improbable that the word cuneus means a V-shaped formation.
Tacitus’ phrase in Germ. 6 is generally taken to mean that
the Germans fought in wedge-formation. The separation of the
three tribes in three columns was also typical of German
tactics. The presence of kinsmen stimulated courage.
 Presumably at the eastern
end of the island, near either
Nymwegen or Arnheim.
 The Aedui lived in Bourgogne
and Nivernois, between the
Loire and the Saone; the Arverni in Auvergne, north-west of
the Cevennes. Both had joined Vindex.
 ‘Many’ must
be an exaggeration, since Augustus’ census
of Gaul took place 27 B.C., ninety-five years ago.
 Sixty years ago, to be exact.
THE MUTINY OF THE BATAVIAN COHORTS
Hordeonius Flaccus at first furthered Civilis’ schemes by shutting his eyes to them. But when messengers kept arriving in panic with news that a camp had been stormed, cohorts wiped out, and not a Roman left in the Batavian Island, he instructed Munius Lupercus, who commanded the two legions in winter-quarters, to march against the enemy. Lupercus lost no time in crossing the river, taking the legions whom he had with him, some Ubii who were close at hand, and the Treviran cavalry who were stationed not far away. To this force he added a regiment of Batavian cavalry, who, though their loyalty had long ago succumbed, still concealed the fact, because they hoped their desertion would fetch a higher price,