This victory delighted Vespasian: everything was succeeding beyond his hopes: and to crown all the news of the battle of Cremona now reached him in Egypt. He hurried forward all the faster towards Alexandria with the object of bringing starvation upon Vitellius’ defeated troops and the inhabitants of Rome, who were already feeling the pinch of diminished imports. For he was at the same time making preparations for an invasion of the adjacent province of Africa by land and sea. By cutting off their corn supply he hoped to reduce the enemy to famine and disunion.
 The marines (see ii. 67, i. 6).
 X Gemina, VI Victrix.
 They occupied a large
district of the north of England,
from the Trent to the Tyne.
 As a matter of fact
his triumph took place in 44.
Caratacus was brought to Rome in 51. Perhaps Tacitus regards
this in itself as a ‘triumph’, or else he makes a venial
 The rebellion on the Rhine is described in Books IV and V.
 In Roumania.
 Ferrata. Cp. ii. 83.
 This little kingdom
west of Trebizond was left to Rome
by Polemo II, A.D. 63. Nero made it a Roman province under the
name of Pontus Polemoniacus.
 Mucianus had ’ordered
the fleet to move from Pontus to
Byzantium’ (ii. 83). This leads some editors to change the
text, and others to suppose that a few ships were left behind.
 Literally, arched boats.
Tacitus describes somewhat
similar craft in Germania, 44.
 The Khopi, which flows from the Caucasus into the Euxine.
 Cp. chap. 8.
 Africa came next to
Egypt in importance as a Roman
granary (cp. i. 73).
ANTONIUS’ ADVANCE FROM CREMONA
Thus a world-wide convulsion marked the passing of the 49 imperial power into new hands. Meanwhile, after Cremona, the behaviour of Antonius Primus was not so blameless as before. He had settled the war, he felt; the rest would be plain sailing. Or, perhaps, in such a nature as his success only brought to light his greed and arrogance and all his other dormant vices. While harrying Italy like a conquered country, he courted the goodwill of his troops and used every word and every action to pave his way to power. He allowed his men to appoint centurions themselves in place of those who had fallen, and thus gave them a taste for insubordination; for their choice fell on the most turbulent spirits. The generals no longer commanded the men, but were dragged at the heels of their caprices. This revolutionary system, utterly fatal to good discipline, was exploited by Antonius for his own profit. Of Mucianus’ approach he had no fears, and thus made a mistake even more fatal than despising Vespasian.