An Outline of the Relations between England and Scotland (500-1707) eBook

This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 218 pages of information about An Outline of the Relations between England and Scotland (500-1707).


[Footnote 89:  Sabbath observance had been introduced from England six centuries earlier.  Cf. p. 14.]

[Footnote 90:  Justices of the peace were appointed throughout the country, and heritable jurisdictions were abolished.]

[Footnote 91:  The son of the Marquis who was executed in 1661.  The earldom, but not the marquisate, had been restored in 1663.]




On April 4th, 1689, a Convention of the Estates of Scotland met to consider the new situation which had been created by the course of events in England.  They had no difficulty in determining their course of action, nor any scruples about deposing James, who was declared to have forfeited his right to the crown.  A list was drawn up of the king’s misdeeds.  They included “erecting schools and societies of Jesuits, making papists officers of state”, taxation and the maintenance of a standing army without consent of Parliament, illegal imprisonments, fines, and forfeitures, and interference with the charters of burghs.  The crown was then offered to William and Mary, but upon certain strictly defined conditions.  All the acts of the late king which were included in the list of his offences must be recognized as illegal:  no Roman Catholic might be King or Queen of Scotland; and the new sovereigns must agree to the re-establishment of Presbytery as the national religion.  It was obvious that the nation was not unanimous.

  “To the Lords of Convention, ’twas Claverhouse spoke,
   Ere the King’s crown go down there are crowns to be broke.”

The opponents of the revolution settlement consisted mainly of the old Royalist and Episcopalian party, the representatives of those who had followed Montrose to victory, and the supporters of the Restoration Government.  As the Great Rebellion had made Royalists of the Scottish Episcopalians, so the Revolution could not but convert them into Jacobites.  Their leader was James Graham of Claverhouse, who retreated from Edinburgh to the north to prepare for a campaign against the new government.  The discontent was not confined to the Episcopalian party.  Such Roman Catholics as there were in Scotland at the time were prepared to take up arms for a Stuart king who was a devout adherent of their religion.  Moreover, the Presbyterians themselves were not united.  A party which was to grow in strength, and which now included a considerable number of extreme Presbyterians, still longed, in spite of their experience of Charles II, for a covenanted king, and looked with great distrust upon William and Mary.  The triumphant party of moderate Presbyterians, who probably represented most faithfully the feeling of the nation, acted throughout with considerable wisdom.  The acceptance of the crown converted the Convention into a Parliament, and the Estates

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