An Outline of the Relations between England and Scotland (500-1707) eBook

This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 218 pages of information about An Outline of the Relations between England and Scotland (500-1707).


[Footnote 80:  Fenelon, i, 133 and 162.]

[Footnote 81:  Mary to Elizabeth, 8th Nov., 1582.  Strickland’s Letters of Mary Stuart, i, p. 294.]

[Footnote 82:  Calderwood, History of the Kirk of Scotland, v, 341-42.]

[Footnote 83:  Ibid, pp. 396-97.]

[Footnote 84:  James Melville’s Autobiography and Diary, p. 370.]

[Footnote 85:  Basilikon Doron.]

[Footnote 86:  Cf. the present writer’s Scottish Parliament before the Union of the Crowns.]

[Footnote 87:  Basilikon Doron.]

[Footnote 88:  The old controversy about the relation of the Church of Scotland to the sees of York and Canterbury had been finally settled, in 1474, by the erection of St. Andrews into a metropolitan see.  Glasgow was made an archbishopric in 1492.]



The new reign had scarcely begun when trouble arose between King Charles and his Scottish subjects.  On the one hand, he alienated the nobles by an attempt, partially successful, to secure for the Church some of its ancient revenues.  More serious still was his endeavour to bring the Scottish Church into uniformity with the usage of the Church of England.  James had understood that any further attempt to alter the service or constitution of the Church of Scotland would infallibly lead to serious trouble.  He had given up an intention of introducing a new prayer-book to supersede the “Book of Common Order”, known as “Knox’s Liturgy”, which was employed in the Church, though not to the exclusion of extemporary prayers.  When Charles came to Edinburgh to be crowned, in 1633, he made a further attempt in this direction, and, although he had to postpone the introduction of this particular change, he left a most uneasy feeling, not only among the Presbyterians, but also among the bishops themselves.  An altar was erected in Holyrood Chapel, and behind it was a crucifix, before which the clergy made genuflexions.  He erected Edinburgh into a bishopric, with the Collegiate Church of St. Giles for a cathedral, and the Bishops of Edinburgh, as they followed in rapid succession, gained the reputation of innovators and supporters of Laud and the English.  Even more dangerous in its effect was a general order for the clergy to wear surplices.  It was widely disobeyed, but it created very great alarm.

In 1635, canons were issued for the Church of Scotland, which owed their existence to the dangerous meddling of Laud, now Archbishop of Canterbury.  James, who loved Episcopacy, had dreaded the influence of Laud in Scotland; his fear was justified, for it was given to Laud to make an Episcopal Church impossible north of the Tweed.  Although certain of the Scottish bishops had expressed approval of these canons, they

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