Critical & Historical Essays eBook

This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 207 pages of information about Critical & Historical Essays.

5.  RIGAUDON.—­Similar to the bourree, but slower.

6.  LOURE.—­Similar to the bourree, but slower. (In French the verb lourer means “to hold,” which may have been a characteristic of the loure bass).

7.  TAMBOURIN.—­[C/2] allegro.  In form and rhythm like the gavotte, but faster.  Usually founded on a rhythmic pedal note imitating a tambourine.

8.  CORRENTE, COURANTE.—­[3/4] allegretto.  Rhythm [3/4:  8 8 8 | 8 8 8 8 8 8] or [3/4:  8 | 8 8 8 8 8 8] (does not usually commence on the beat).  Form 1, sometimes Form 2.  The rhythm is usually uniform, a kind of perpetual motion, though not in one voice.

9.  MINUET.—­[3/4] generally a little slower than moderato, although in later minuets the tempo became allegretto.  Rhythm, generally, [3/4:  >(4 | 4) 4 4 | 4 8 8 8 8] etc.  Old minuets often began on the first beat.  Form 4; the third and fourth periods being generally in a different mode from the first and second periods, and called Trio or Minuet 2.  Minuets exist also without the Trio, and are in Form 1 or 2.

10.  CHACONNE.—­[3/4] moderato.  Form undecided; has sometimes even only one period, sometimes three or two.  It is generally accompanied by doubles or variations, and is invariably written on a ground bass or basso ostinato.  The rhythm is often syncopated.

PASSACAILLE, [3/4], resembles a chaconne but is more stately.

11.  WALTZ (old German).—­[3/4] andante moderato.  Generally Form 6.  Rhythm [3/4:  4. 8 8. 16 | 8 8 4 8 8] approximately.

12.  MARCH.—­[4/4] allegro moderato.  Rhythm [4/4:  8. 16 | 4 . 16 4 4 | 2. 3(8 8 8)] etc., or [4 | 4 8. 16 4 4] etc.  Form 6.  Generally all the periods are repeated and consist of eight measures each; third and fourth periods change the key and rhythm.

13.  ALLEMANDE.—­[4/4] moderato.  Rhythm generally uniform sixteenth notes.  Form 1.

14.  PASSEPIED.—­Quick minuet.

15.  PAVANE, PADVANA, or PAVO (peacock).—­[4/4] andante moderato.  Rhythm [4/4:  4 8. 16 4. 8 | 8 8 8 8 2].  Form 2 or 6.  Sometimes [2/4]; third and fourth periods in different keys.

16.  GIGUE.—­[2/4] [6/8] [3/4] [3/8] [9/8] [12/8] presto.  Rhythm generally uniform eighth notes.  Forms 1 and 2.

17.  POLONAISE.—­[3/4].  Rhythm [3/4:  8 16 16 8 16 16 4] or [16 16 8 16 16 8 4] allegro.  Form 1, generally with short coda.

MODERN FORMS (1800).

1.  MAZURKA.—­[3/4] allegretto.  Form 6.  Rhythm [3/4:  4 | 8. 16 4 4].

2.  POLONAISE (also POLACCA).—­[3/4] allegro maestoso.  Rhythm [3/4:  8. 16 8. 16 16 16 16 16] or [8 4 16 16 8 8].  The bass is generally [8 16 16 8 8 8 8].  Form 7.

3.  BOLERO (CACHUCHA) (Spanish).—­Like the polonaise but livelier, and generally containing counter-rhythms in triplets.

4.  HABANERA.—­[2/4].  Rhythm [2/4:  8 8 16 8 16 | 8 8 16 8 16 | 8 8 3(8 8 8) | 8 8 4].  The characteristic element is the mixture of triplets and eighth notes.  Time, andante.  Form undecided, generally No. 1.  Very often repeated with slight changes.

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