Length in cm. of 10 Resps. Length in cm. of 10 Resps. Before Stimulus. After Stimulus. 4.8 4.4 5.3 4.6 4.5 4.0
These results indicate an increase in the respiration rate due to the visual stimulus.
4. Of the other auditory stimuli used, the pistol-cap explosion gave very irregular results. For one animal it caused acceleration, for another inhibition. There is, however, good evidence that the sounds were heard.
5. The ringing of a bell gave results similer to those for a whistle, and the sound of a 500 S.V. tuning fork usually caused a slight increase in the rate of breathing. In these experiments I therefore have evidence, through their effects upon respiration, of the frog’s ability to hear sounds ranging from 50 V. to at least 1,000 V.
The croak of the green frog ranges from 100 to 200 V., so far as I have been able to determine. That of the bull frog is lower, from 50 to 75; and in the leopard frog the range is from 80 to 125. The latter is very different from the green frog in its croaking, in that it croaks whenever disturbed, whereas, the green frog rarely responds in that way to a stimulus.
We are now in a position to say that the failure of frogs to give motor reactions to strong auditory stimuli is not due to their inability to be affected by the stimuli, but is a genuine inhibition phenomenon.
XI. THE EFFECTS OF AUDITORY STIMULI ON VISUAL REACTIONS.
Further experimental evidence of hearing was gotten from some work done to test the influence of sounds upon motor reactions to visual stimuli. Frogs, like most other amphibians, reptiles and fishes, are attracted by any small moving object and usually attempt to seize it. They never, so far as I have noticed, feed upon motionless objects, but, on the other hand, will take almost anything which moves. Apparently the visual stimulus of movement excites a reflex. A very surprising thing to those who are unfamiliar with frog habits is the fear which small frogs have of large ones. Put some green frogs or small bull frogs into a tank with large bull frogs, and the little ones will at once show signs of extreme fear; they jump about in the most excited manner and try hard to escape. The cause of their fear soon appears, since it is usually only a few minutes until the little ones are swallowed by their wide-mouthed, cannibalistic fellows.
It is, moreover, well known that a bit of red flannel fastened to a hook attracts frogs and is an excellent method of capturing them. Red seems to be the color which they most readily notice.