of turning were the all-important factors in the establishment
of the habit. At first it seemed as if the direction
of turning was the chief determinant, and only by
experimenting with colors under other conditions was
I able to satisfy myself that the animals did notice
differences in the appearance of their surroundings
and act accordingly. In Table IV. some results
bearing on this point have been arranged. To begin
with, the habit of going to the left when the red
was on the right at the entrance had been established;
then, in order to see whether the colors influenced
the choice, I reversed the conditions, placing the
red on the left, that is, on the open-passage side.
The results as tabulated in the upper part of Table
IV. show that the animals were very much confused
by the reversal; at the entrance where there were
several guiding factors besides the colors there were
50 per cent. of mistakes, while at the exit where
there were fewer differences by which the animal could
be directed it failed every time. This work was
not continued long enough to break up the old habit
and replace it by a new one, because I wished to make
use of the habit already formed for further experiments,
and also because the animals remained so long in the
labyrinth trying to find their way out that there was
constant danger of losing them from too prolonged
exposure to the dry air.
INFLUENCE OF CHANCES OF CONDITIONS.
FROG NO. 2.
Habit perfectly formed of going
to Left (avoiding Red) at
entrance and to Right at exit. Conditions
now reversed. Red on
Left. Partition at Exit on Right.
Trials. Entrance. Exit. Remarks.
Right. Wrong. Right. Wrong.
1- 5 3 2 0 5
6-10 2 3 0 5
Discontinued because animal remained
so long in labyrinth that
there was danger of injuring it for further work.
that the habit once formed is hard to change.
Given 20 trials with conditions
as at first in order to
establish habit again.
1-10 9 1 8 2
11-20 10 0 9 1
Colors reversed, no
other change. To test influence of colors.
1-10 6 4
INFLUENCE OF DISTURBANCE WHEN ANIMAL IS
Disturbance. Animal Touched.
To Red (Right). To White (Left).
To Red. To White.
8 5 5
This was after the tendency to go
to the Left at the entrance
had been established.