V. (D. = .) Most used element,
Ms., in 73 per cent. of cases
opposed to D.; in 40 per cent. of cases, D. of glance opposed
to D.; in 28 per cent. Ms. + D. of glance opposed to D.; least
used element, V. (15 per cent.). I. 39 per cent.; L. 38 per cent.
I. (Balanced, Ms. + I. = D.) Most used element (not counting
those already included in equation), I., 55 per cent.; least
used, V., 2 per cent.; L., 50 per cent. In 44 per cent., D. of
glance opposed to D.
II. (Ms. + I. = D.) Most used
element (not in equation), I., 52
per cent. Least used, V., 26 per cent. L., 43 per cent. In 21
per cent., D. of glance opposed to D.
III. (Ms. + I. + D. = D.) Three
cases. Two cases V. on empty
IV. (Ms. + I. = .) Two cases. One case V. on empty side.
V. (Ms. + I. + D. =
.) Most used element, L., 60 per cent.;
least used, V., 10 per cent.; 33-1/3 per cent., D. of glance to
The portrait class is an especially interesting object for study, inasmuch as while its general type is very simple and constant, for this very reason the slightest variations are sharply felt, and have their very strongest characteristic effect. We shall, therefore, find that the five principal factors in composition express themselves very clearly. The general type of the portrait composition is, of course, the triangle with the head at the apex, and this point is also generally in the central line—in 73 per cent. of the whole number of cases, as is seen from the table. All cases but one are longer than they are wide, most are half-length or more. Nevertheless, great richness of effect is brought about by emphasizing variations. For instance, the body and head are, in the great majority of cases, turned in the same way, giving the strongest possible emphasis to the direction of attention—especially powerful, of course, where all the interest is in the personality. But it is to be observed that the very strongest suggestion of direction is given by the direction of the glance; and in no case, when most of the other elements are directed in one way, does the glance fail to come backward. (Cf. A. II., V., and B. I., II., V.)
A. It is of especial value for our conclusions that that division in which the constant elements are least balanced (V.) is far the most numerous. Comparison of this with III. shows that the principal element, direction of movement of head or body, is balanced by the larger mass of the body or accessories. Very significant, also, is the great increase in the use of V. in this most irregular class (15 per cent. as against 1 per cent. in III.). Three cases (214, 1087, 154, all A.V.,) fail to show substitutional symmetry.