(1) I. + D. = D. (2) I. = D.
+ D. (4) I. = D.
56. I. = L. 271. I. = D. + L. 668. I. = D. + Ms.
332. I. = L. 867. I. = D. + V. + D. 14. I. = D. + I.
633. I. = D. 91. I. = D. + V.
(3) I. = D. 1111. I. = D. + V.
144. I. = D. 1011. I. = D. = L.
521. I. = D. 915. I. = D. = L.
356. I. = L. + D. + D.
296. I. + Ms. = V. + L.
(5) I. + D. = D.
(6) I. =
51. I. = D. 596. I. = Ms.
581. I. = D. 892. I. = Ms.
829. I. = D. + I. 224. I. = I. + D.
159. I. = I. + D. 908. I. = D. + L.
683. I. = D. + L.
1045. I. = I. + L. (7) I. + D. =
745. I. = I. + L. 344. I. + D. = Ms.
734. I. = D. + L. 949. I. + D. = Ms. + V. + L.
404. I. = D. + L. 608. I. + D. = L.
248. I. = L. 524. I. + D. = L.
37. I. = L.
97. I. = L. (8) 0.
363. I. = V. + L.
674. I. = V. + L. (9) I. + D. + D. =
62. I. = V. + L. 361. I. + D. = L.
1142. I. = V. + L.
1018. I. = V. + L. (10)
110. I. + V. = Ms. + L. 538. I. = D.
411. I. + V. = Ms. + L. 614. I. + Ms. = V.
771. I. + Ms. = V. + L. 34. D. = Ms. + L.
Most used element, I., 100 per cent.; least used, Ms., 21 per cent. D., 96 per cent.; L., 64 per cent.; V., 27 per cent.
The first thing to be noted, on comparing this table with the preceding, is the remarkable frequency of the use of the vista and the line. Among the altarpieces, the direction of attention was the element most often opposed to the interesting object; and next to that, another object of interest. These two elements, however, here sink into comparative insignificance. In general, balance is brought about through the disposition of form rather than of interests. This appears in comparing the numbers; against the use of L. in 19 per cent. of the cases among the altarpieces, we have 64 per cent. among the Madonna pictures; V. is used in the former cases 13 per cent. of the times, in the latter 27 per cent. The reason for this would appear to be that the lack of accessories in the person of saints, worshippers, etc., and the consequent increase in the size of M. and C. in the picture heightens the effect of any given outline, and so makes the variations from symmetry greater. This being the case, the compensations would be stronger—and as we have learned that V. and L. are of this character, we see why they are needed. None of the M. and C., S.C. pictures fails to give a complete balance of elements according to hypothesis. There are no well-defined cases of S. & S. or D.C.