(8) I. + D. = (9) I.
+ (D. + D.) = (10) 0.
57. I. + D. = Ms. 835. I. + D. = Ms + I.
979. I. + D. = I. + L. 724. I. + D. = Ms + L.
134. I. + D. = D. 495. I. + D. = Ms + L.
106. I. + D. = D. + V. 182. I. + D. = Ms + V.
220. I. + D. = L. 817. I. + D. = I.
118. I. + D. = V. + L. 662. I. + D. = I.
157. Unbalanced. 806. I. + D. = I.
1136. I. + D. = I. + L.
865. I. + D. = I. + V.
1023. I. + D. = V.
531. I. + D. = L.
553. I. + D. = L.
The most used element is I., in 100 per cent. of cases; the least used, V., 13 per cent. D., in 91 per cent. of cases; Ms., 26 per cent.; L., 19 per cent. 175, 433, unbalanced.
As seen in the table, a balance of elements is kept, except in four cases which will be hereafter considered. In all cases the balance is between the interest in C., sometimes plus D., (in the attention of the figures to C.), on the one side, and other elements on the other. Very seldom are other salient points found on the C. side. When the C. side is especially ‘heavy,’ the number of opposing elements increases, and especially takes the form of V. and L. [cf. (7), (8), (9)], which were observed in the experimental chapter to be powerful in attracting attention. For the fairly well-balancing framework—(i), (2), (3) and (4)—Ms., I., and D. are much more often the opposing elements.
The pictures listed as unbalanced are, with one exception, among the oldest examples given; conceived in the most slavish geometrical symmetry in which, indeed, the geometrical outline almost hides the fact that the slight variations are all toward a lack of balance.
There is but one S. & S. case (1054), Titian, The Madonna of the House of Pesaro. In this, M. and C. are on a high throne on the Right, other figures lower down on the Left bearing a flag that leans back to the Left. All the lines of the figures and of the massive architecture and the general direction of attention bear down so strongly to Left that the importance of the Right figures is balanced. We should have, then, I. = I. + L. + D. The D.C. cases, seven in number, are remarkably alike. Six have a vista separating the two groups, in five remarkably deep and beautiful, as if to fix the oscillating attention there. In all, M. and C., either in position or by the direction of their lines, are nearer the Cn. than the opposing figures, which are naturally less interesting, thus giving an instance of the mechanical balance. Their general equation, then, would be I. = M. or M. + L. Having shown that the small variations from the general symmetrical type of altar-pieces are invariably, except in primitive examples, in the direction of substitutional symmetry, or balance, we may next study the Madonna pictures, using the same classifications for purposes of comparison.