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This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 678 pages of information about Harvard Psychological Studies, Volume 1.

II. (a) F. 2 LINES 80x10.  V. SINGLE LINK 80x10.

F.                           V.
C.                O.         P.
40- 60     58, 114*  138,  20      96, 84     166
60- 80     48         40, 138*    100, 56     150
80-100     64         70, 162*     47, 87     128
100-120     70 to 80   60           53, 53       X
120-140     58         82           50, 48      35
140-160     74         95 to 100    22, 32      37
160-180     72         102           X,  X      42
180-200     90         X             X,  X      50

Here the variable should supposedly be the farther out; but we have V. 58, 20 for F. 40-60; V. 48, 40, 56 for F. 60; V. 64, 70, 87 for F. 80; no larger choice for F. 100-120; indeed, from this point on everything nearer, and very much nearer.  We can trace in these cases, more clearly perhaps than in the preceding, the presence of definite tendencies. O and P, from positions in accord with the mechanical theory, approach the center rapidly; while C is seldom ‘mechanical,’ but very slowly recedes from the center.  The large number of refusals to choose assures us that the subjects demand a definitely pleasant arrangement—­in other words, that every choice is the expression of a deliberate judgment.

Taking again the experiments 1. (a) and 1. (b), and grouping the results for nine subjects, C, O, A, S, H, G, D, and P, we obtain the following general types of choice.  The experiments were repeated by each subject, so that we have eighteen records for each position.  I should note here that preliminary experiments showed that near the frame the threshold of difference of position was 10 mm., or more, while near the center it was 4 or 5 mm.; that is, arrangements were often judged symmetrically equal which really differed by from 4 to 10 mm., according as they were near to or far from the center.  In grouping types of choice, therefore, choices lying within these limits will be taken as belonging to the same type.

EXP. 1. (a) F.(80 X 10).  V.(160 X 10).

1.  F. 40.  V. 40.¹

Types of Choice for V.
(1)  24   24   25   28
(2)  40   42   45   45                        40   40   40
(3)  62   65
(4) 100  105  1O9  120  130  136                  120
(5) 166 180                        200  200  200  200  160  160
¹This table is obtained by taking from the full list, not given here, of 1. (b) F. (l60 X 10), V. (80 X 10), those positions of 160 X 10 where the variable 80 X 10 has been placed at or near 40, thus giving the same arrangement as for 1. (a).

It might be objected that a group 40-65 (2-3) would not be larger than one of 100-136 (4), but the break between 45 and 62 shows the zones not continuous.  Moreover, as said above, the positions far from the center have a very large difference threshold.

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