Harvard Psychological Studies, Volume 1 eBook

This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 678 pages of information about Harvard Psychological Studies, Volume 1.

   [8] This was probably due to beginning the series of
   stimulations with the typical measure.  Such beginning was
   always made by chance.

In regard to the relative duration of the redundant measure the subjective reports indicate a large variability.  The dactylic form appears to be slightly longer than the trochaics among which it appears; but not infrequently it is shorter.[9] These variations are probably connected with differences in stress due to the relation which the measure bears to the accentual initiation of the whole series; for this accent apparently may fall either within the redundant measure itself or on the first element of the succeeding
                 ___ _____
               >/ \ > | | > >
group, thus:  | q q q; q q; |, or | e e e q q; q q |.
                              \_/

[9] The only form taken up was the occurrence of dactylic
measures in trochaic series.

Two rhythm forms were analyzed, the trochaic and the dactylic, the series of sounds being given by hammer-falls of 7/8 and 1/8 inch for accented and unaccented elements respectively.  In each experiment full and syncopated measures alternated regularly with each other in continuous succession, giving the forms

>     >           >       >
| q. q; q % | and | q. q q; q. % % |.
\_____/           \____________/

The initiation of the series was in every case determined by chance.  Six observers took part in the work with trochaic forms, five in that with dactylic.  The quantitative results are given in the following tables, in each of which the relations of duration, position and stress are included.

TABLE LVI.

TROCHAIC FORM. 
Apparent Accentuation
Ratio of 1st  Second Group Judged to be 2d Group   of Second Group.
to 2d Group.   +          =         —    Final     +        =       —
1.000:1.000    55.5%     44.4%            100%     71.5%    28.5%
1.000:0.946              83.3      16.6%  100      30.0     70.0
1.000:0.895    66.6      11.1      22.2   100      30.0     60.0   10.0%
1.000:0.846    16.6      41.6      41.6   100      40.0     60.0
1.000:0.800    16.6      41.6      41.6   100      40.0     60.0
1.000:0.756    49.9      24.9      24.9   100      40.0     60.0
1.000:0.714    16.6      41.6      41.6   100      20.0     80.0

TABLE LVII.

DACTYLIC FORM. 
Apparent Accentuation
Ratio of 1st  Second Group Judged to be  2d Group   of Second Group.
to 2d Group.   +         =         —     Final     +         =       —
1.000:1.000   100.0%                      100%     40.0%    60.0%
1.000:0.946             83.3%     16.6%   100      40.0     60.0
1.000:0.895             66.6      33.3    100      20.0     80.0
1.000:0.846             37.5      62.5    100      40.0     60.0
1.000:0.800                      100.0    100      40.0     60.0
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