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This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 678 pages of information about Harvard Psychological Studies, Volume 1.

When the phases of accented and unaccented elements are compared, irrespective of their position in the rhythmic group, the same functional differences are found to exist as in the case of triple rhythms.  Their quantitative relations are given in the following table.

TABLE XLVI.

  Phase.  I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X
  Accented. 1.000 1.103 1.069 1.172 1.241 1.139 1.206 1.310 1.241 1.310
  Unacc., 1.000 1.083 1.128 1.169 1.159 1.208 1.169 1.250 1.169 1.169

The cause of the apparent retardation lies, as before, in a change occurring primarily in the accented elements of the rhythm, and this progressive differentiation, it is inferable from the results cited above, affects adjacent unaccented elements as well, the whole constituting a process more naturally interpretable as a functional accompaniment of progressive definition in the rhythmical treatment of the material than as a mark of primary temporal retardation.

The contribution of the several intervals according to position in the series and irrespective of accentual stress is given in the table following.

TABLE XLVII.

  Interval.  I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X
  First, 1.000 1.136 1.136 1.182 1.227 1.227 1.227 1.273 1.318 1.318
  Second, 1.000 1.042 1.042 1.125 1.166 1.042 1.042 1.083 1.083 1.166
  Third, 1.000 1.150 1.250 1.250 1.250 1.250 1.400 1.400 1.450 1.450
  Fourth, 1.000 1.059 1.059 1.147 1.179 1.147 1.179 1.294 1.206 1.179

A rhythmical alternation is here presented, the contributions of the first and third elements being far in advance of those of the second and fourth.  The values of the minor pair are almost equal; of the major the third exceeds the first.  Under the assumption already made this would indicate the existence at these points of nodes of natural accentuation, of which the second marks the maximum reached in the present series.

The determination of relative time-values for accented and unaccented intervals was next sought by indirect experimentation, in which the affective aspect of the experience was eliminated from consideration, and account was taken only of the perception of quantitative variations in the duration of the successive intervals.  Proceeding from the well-known observation that if every alternate element of a temporally uniform auditory series receive increased stress, the whole series will coalesce into successive groups of two elements in which the louder sound precedes and the weaker follows, while the interval which succeeds the unaccented sound, and which therefore separates adjacent groups, will appear of greater duration than that which follows the accented element, the investigation sought by employing the method of right and wrong cases with a series of changing time-values for the two intervals to determine the quantitative proportion of the two durations necessary to produce the impression of temporal uniformity in the series.

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