Forgot your password?  

Resources for students & teachers

This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 678 pages of information about Harvard Psychological Studies, Volume 1.
B           A             B                A
Ratio   +   =   —    +  =  —    T.E.  T.J.  %     T.E.  T.J.  %
I.     2  20  2    0  12 12     2   24   8.5    12   24  50.0
II.     5  18  2    4  16  5     5   25  20.0    21   25  84.4
III.    10  22  0    9  19  4    10   32  31.0    23   32  72.0
IV.    13  18  2   20   9  8    13   33  39.0    17   37  46.0
V.     8   8  0   12   0  4     8   16  50.0     4   16  25.0
VI.     7   9  1   13   1  3     7   17  41.0     4   17  24.0

The overestimation of the interval before the louder sound also tends to increase in extent with the actual increase in duration of the interval following that sound over the other intervals of the series.

Thus, the form which the sensible time-relations of such a limited series of sounds present is found to be intimately dependent on the intensive preponderance of certain elements within it, on the degree of increased stress which such elements receive, on their local position in the series, and on the rate at which the stimulations succeed one another.  The knowledge of these facts prepares us for the whole series of relations manifested in the special quantitative investigations reported in the sections which follow.  In the first of these is presented the time-relations obtaining among the successive reactions of the various rhythm types discussed in the preceding division of this part, the section, namely, on the distribution of intensities.

In the first group of reactions the series was not to be consciously accented, nor to be divided into groups by the introduction of pauses.  The reactor was required only to conceive it as a succession of two-beat groups continuously repeated, the way in which the groups should be defined, whether by counting or otherwise, being left to his own discretion.  The experimental group was composed of five subjects.

The following table presents the quantitative results of an analysis of the material in series of ten successive pairs of reactions, upon the basis of unity as the value of the first element.

TABLE XXXV.

  Quantities.  I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X
  Whole Meas., 1.000 0.894 1.035 0.912 1.000 0.877 1.070 0.877 1.070 0.841
  First Inter., 1.000 1.142 1.071 1.142 1.000 1.285 1.000 1.214 1.000 1.214
  Second Inter., 1.000 0.837 1.023 0.860 1.000 0.744 1.093 0.767 1.093 0.790

Within the limits of the calculation no progressive change appears, either of acceleration or of retardation, whether in general or on the part of individual reactors.  In narrower ranges the inconstancy of the periods is very marked, and their variations of clearly defined rhythmical character.  The duration of the total measures of two beats is throughout alternately longer and shorter, the average of their values presenting a ratio of 1.000:0.847.  The order of this arrangement, namely, that the longer period precedes the shorter in the larger group, is drawn from the fact that measurements consistently began with the initial reaction of the series.

Follow Us on Facebook