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This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 678 pages of information about Harvard Psychological Studies, Volume 1.

It cannot be too strongly insisted on that the perception of rhythm is an impression, an immediate affection of consciousness depending on a particular kind of sensory experience; it is never a construction, a reflective perception that certain relations of intensity, duration, or what not, do obtain.  If the perception of rhythm in a series of impressions were dependent on intellectual analysis and discrimination, the existence of such temporal limits as are actually found would be inconceivable and absurd.  So long as the perception of the uniformity or proportion of time-relations were possible, together with the discrimination of the regular recurrence in the series of points of accentuation, the perception of rhythm should persist, however great or small might be the absolute intervals which separated the successive members of the series.  If it were the conception of a certain form of relation, instead of the reception of a particular impression, which was involved, we should realize a rhythm which extended over hours or days, or which was comprehended in the fraction of a second, as readily as those which actually affect us.

The rate at which the elements of a series succeed one another affects the constitution of the unit groups of which the rhythmical sequence is composed.  The faster the rate, the larger is the number of impressions which enter into each group.  The first to appear in subjective rhythm, as the rate is increased from a speed too slow for any impression of rhythm to arise, are invariably groups of two beats; then come three-beat groups, or a synthesis of the two-beat groups into four, with major and minor accents; and finally six-and eight-beat groups appear.  When objective accentuation is present a similar series of changes is manifested, the process here depending on a composition of the unit-groups into higher orders, and not involving the serial addition of new elements to the group.

The time relations of such smaller and larger units are dependent on the relative inertia of the mechanism involved.  A definite subjective rhythm period undoubtedly appears; but its constancy is not maintained absolutely, either in the process of subjective rhythmization or in the reproduction of ideal forms.  Its manifestation is subject to the special conditions imposed on it by such apprehension or expression.  The failure to make this distinction is certain to confuse one’s conception of the temporal rhythmic unit and its period.  The variations of this period present different curves in the two cases of subjective rhythmization and motor expression of definite rhythm forms.  In the former the absolute duration of the unit-group suffers progressive decrease as the rate of succession among the stimuli is accelerated; in the latter a series of extensions of its total duration takes place as the number of elements composing the unit is increased.  The series of relative values for units of from two to eight constituents which the finger reactions presented in this investigation is given in the following table: 

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