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This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 678 pages of information about Harvard Psychological Studies, Volume 1.

We have here twenty comparisons each of movements away from the original positions and movements back to the original positions: 

    In the first case, 15 took less time under I., 5 took more
    time under I.

    The 5 cases of more time occurred with two subjects (H., 3 and
    I., 2).

    In the second case, 12 took less time under I., 8 took more
    time under I.

    The 8 cases of more time occurred with three subjects (G., 1;
    H., 3; I., 4).

If we omit H.’s record and take the general averages for each subject, we find the following advantages in time in form of movements where the object had been moved;

B.,       0.59 seconds. 
G.,       0.52    "
K.,       1.84    "

But I., 0.35 seconds in favor of movements when the object had not been moved.

Combining these results, we have 0.74 sec. as the average gain in time for these four subjects.


With one exception (G.), the subjects found Movements I., movements in the direction in which the object had been moved, easier than Movements II.  In Movements II. the eye seemed to construct and compel the motion, which was not the case with Movements I., in which the eye followed the motion.  The distance to which the image went in Movements I. seemed predetermined, and these movements seemed exact copies of the original movement of the object, being purely reminiscent and reproducing its irregularities when there were any.  Also, the image was usually seen in transitu both out and back, which was never the case with Movements II.  Eye movement and enunciation were much less frequent and the image was more vivid and distinct in Movements I.

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Transcriber’s Note: 

   Rhythmic measures in the first 2 articles of this section are
   transcribed as follows: 

|   delineates measure
q   quarter note
q.  dotted quarter note
e   eighth note
%   quarter rest

   Major accent of the measure is indicated by a >, either above
   or in front of the beat.  Minor accent of the measure is
   indicated by ., used in the same way.

>   .
| q q q q | or | >q q .q q | represent the same rhythmic pattern.

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