Harvard Psychological Studies, Volume 1 eBook

This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 678 pages of information about Harvard Psychological Studies, Volume 1.

TABLE XVI.

1            2          3           4           5
a      b     a     b     a     b     a     b     a     b
I.    0      0     0     0     0     0     0     0     0     0
II.   43     41    33    51    19    31    32    41    20    18
III.    0      6     0     0     3    11    13    16     0     0
IV.   56     28    23    35     0    11    48    56    35    25
V.   56     55    44    44    57    30    39    32    34    30
VI.   14      8    12    12    11     5    35    12     9     6
VII.   52     54    56    56    51    47    56    57    47    26
VIII.   15      0    18    21    24    39    26    10    23    21
IX.   28     25    39    31    23    28    26    36    25    17
X.    0      0     0     0     0     0     0     0     0     0
XI.   52     45    41    48     7    39    50    36    48    22
35.11  29.11 29.55 33.11 21.66 26.78 29.55 26.91 21.91 15.00

Series No.  XVI.—­The course of experimentation having shown the superior energy of lines, in comparison with surfaces, in stimulating, directing, and holding the attention, a series of figures was devised to test the question whether the direction of the lines would have any effect upon the length of time during which both images of a pair of linear figures would be presented together.  The materials used were granite-gray strips half a centimeter wide.  The letters (a) and (b) at the heads of the columns refer to the same letters in the diagram, and distinguish the different arrangements of the same pair of objects.  The figures in the body of the columns show only the length of time during which both images were reported present in consciousness together.  At the foot of the columns are shown the averages for each pair.  No general averages are shown, as the problem presented by each pair is peculiar to itself.

[Illustration:  FIG. 7.]

The maximum is reached in No. 1_a_, where the angle has the arrowhead form and each angle points to the other.  It should be remarked that the diagram is somewhat misleading in respect to the distance of the figures, which in this as in the other experiments was 25 cm.  The figures therefore were far enough away from each other to be perceived and imaged in individual distinctness.  But the ‘energy’ of the lines, especially where the lines united to form an acute angle, was often sufficient to overcome the effect of this separation, and either to bring the figures nearer together or to unite them into a single object.  The notes are very decisive in this regard.  A few of them may be cited:  “The angles tended to join points.”  “The figures showed a tendency to move in the direction of the apex.”  “The angles (2_a_) united to form a cross.”  “When both figures (4_b_) were in mind I felt disagreeable strains in the eyeballs; one figure led me to the right and the other to the left.”  The effect of the last-named figures (4_a_) seemed to be different

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