[Illustration: FIG. 2.]
Now this mental exploration involves, of course, changes in the direction of the attention corresponding in some way to changes in the direction of the lines. Does this shifting of the attention involve ideated movements? There can be little doubt that it does. “I felt an impulse,” says one, “to turn in the direction of the image seen.” And the unconscious actual movements, particularly those of the eyes, which are associated with ideated movements, took place so often that it is hard to believe they were ever wholly excluded. Such movements, being slight and automatically executed, were not at first noticed. The subjects were directed, in fact, to attend in all cases primarily to the appearance and disappearance of the images, and it was only after repeated observations and questions were put, that they became aware of associated movements, and were able, at the close of an observation, to describe them. After that, it became a common report that the eyes followed the attention. And as we must assume some central influence as the cause of this movement, which while the eyes were closed could have no reflex relation to the stimulus of light, we must impute it to the character of the ideas, or to their physical substrates.
The idea, or, as we may call it, in view of the attitude of the subject, the internal sensory impression, thus seems to bear a double aspect. It is, in the cases noted, at once sensory and motor, or at any rate involves motor elements. And the effect of the activity of such motor elements is both to increase the distinctness of the image and to prolong the duration of the process by which it is apprehended. The sensory process thus stands in intimate dependence on the motor. Nor would failure to move the eyes or any other organ with the movement of attention, if established, be conclusive as against the presence