Harvard Psychological Studies, Volume 1 eBook

This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 757 pages of information about Harvard Psychological Studies, Volume 1.
N.     O.     V.     M.        N.     O.     V.     M.
Bur.    6     10(1)   7(1)   5(4)       38     67     44     31
W.      5(3)  12(1)   6      9          31     75     38     56
Du.     1     11(1)   8      9           6     69     50     56
H.      9(1)  14      8     12          56     88     50     75
Da.     1(3)   7(4)   3(1)   9(3)        7     44     20     56
R.      7(2)   3(3)   5      5(1)       44     19     31     31
Total, 29(9)  57(10) 37(2)  49(8)  Av., 30     60     39     51

Av. gain in object couplets, 30 per cent.
" " " movement couplets, 12 per cent.

The table shows that five subjects recall objects better than images of objects, while one subject recalls images of objects better.  Similarly, three subjects recall actual movements of the body better than images of the same, while with three neither type has any advantage.


In the C set certain conditions were different from the conditions of the A and B sets.  These changes will be described under three heads:  changes in the material; changes in the time conditions; and changes in the method of presentation.

For lack of monosyllabic English words the verbs and movements were dissyllabic words.  The nouns and objects were monosyllabic, as before.  All were still concrete, and the movements, whether made or imaged, were still simple.  But the movements employed objects, instead of being merely movements of the body.

For two of the subjects, M and Mo, the time intervals between the tests remained as in the A and the B sets, namely, two days, nine days, and sixteen days.  With the four other subjects, S, Hu, B, and Ho, the number of tests was reduced to three and the intervals were as follows: 

The I. test, which as before was a part of the learning process, was not counted.  The II. test followed from 41/2 to 61/2 hours, or an average of 5-3/8 hours, after the I. test.  The III. test was approximately 16 hours after the II. test for all four subjects.

The series were learned between 10 a.m. and 1:30 p.m., the II. test was the same day between 4:30 and 5:10 p.m., and the III. test was the following morning between 8:30 and 9:10 a.m.  Each subject of course came at the same hour each week.

Each series was shown three times, as in the B set.

A change had to be made in the length of exposure of each couplet in the movement series.  For, as a rule, movements employing objects required a longer time to execute than mere movements of the body.  Five seconds was found to be a suitable length of exposure.  To keep the three other types of series comparable with the movement series, if possible, their exposure was also increased from 3 to 5 secs.  The interval of 2 secs, at the end of a presentation was omitted, and the interval between learning and testing reduced from 4 secs, in the B set to 2 secs.

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Harvard Psychological Studies, Volume 1 from Project Gutenberg. Public domain.
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