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This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 678 pages of information about Harvard Psychological Studies, Volume 1.
M. 
Series.        Im.  Rec.    Two Days.      Im.  Rec.       Two Days. 
N.    O.   N.    O.     V.     M.    V.      M.
A^{1-4}        6     7    3      1     6      7      2      1
A^{5-8}        5(1)  6    3(1)   6     6(1)   7      5(1)   6
A^{9-12}       7     7    4      6     7      6(1)   7      6(1)
A^{13-16}      4     5    2      2     5      3      2      2
Total.       22(1)  25   12(1)  15    24(1)  23(1)  16(1)  15(1)
Per cent.    88     96   48     58    96     92     64     66
S. 
Series.       Im.  Rec.    Two Days.      Im.  Rec.       Two Days. 
N.    O.   N.    O.     V.     M.    V.      M.
A^{1-4}        6(1)  6    0      0     7      7      0      0
A^{5-8}        6     7    1      3     6      7      0      3
A^{9-12}       7     6    2      2     5      7      0      0
A^{13-16}      5     5    0      0     5      5      3      0
Total.        24(1) 24    3      5    23     26      3      3
Per cent.     96    92   12     19    88    100     12     12
Hu. 
Series.       Im.  Rec.    Two Days.      Im.  Rec.       Two Days. 
N.    O.   N.    O.     V.     M.    V.      M.
A^{1-4}        6     7    0      1     5      6(1)   0      2
A^{5-8}        5(2)  7    1(2)   1     7      7      1      0
A^{9-12}       6(1)  7    2      2     6      7      0      5
A^{13-16}      4(1)  4(1) 0      2     5      5      0      1
Total.        21(4) 25(1) 3(2)   6    23     25(1)   1      8
Per cent.     95   100   14     24    88    100      4     32

These results will be included in the discussion of the results of the B set.

THE B SET.

A new material was needed for foreign symbols.  After considerable experimentation nonsense words were found to be the best adapted for our purpose.  The reasons for this are their regularly varying length and their comparative freedom from indirect associations.  An objection to using nonsense syllables in any work dealing with the permanence of memory is their sameness.  On this account they are not remembered long.  To secure a longer retention of the material, nonsense words were devised in substantially the same manner as that in which Mueller and Schumann made nonsense syllables, except that these varied regularly in length from four to six letters.  Thus the number of letters, not the number of syllables was the criterion of variation, though of course irregular variation in the number of syllables was a necessary consequence.

When the nonsense words were used it was found that far fewer indirect associations occurred than with nonsense syllables.  By indirect association I mean the association of a foreign symbol and its word by means of a third term suggested to the subject by either of the others and connected at least in his experience with both.  Usually this third term is a word phonetically similar to the foreign symbol and ideationally suggestive of the word to be associated.  It is a very common form of mnemonic in language material.  The following are examples: 

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