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This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 678 pages of information about Harvard Psychological Studies, Volume 1.

TABLE IX.

Observer.               Rotation of 45 deg..            Rotation of 90 deg.. 
C.E.      A.D.      M.V.       C.E.      A.D.      M.V.
B (30)        +  4.10    24.57    18.56
D (30)        +291.03   291.03    61.86
G (50)        +266.78   266.78    22.83    +200.16  200.16   11.00
F (60)        +116.45   116.45    17.14    — 36.06   36.30    6.29
J (20)        +174.30   174.63    30.94
Average:         +170.53   174.69    30.66

The errors which appear in these tables are not consistently of the type presented in the well-known rotation of visual planes subjectively determined under conditions of abnormal relations of the head or body in space.  When the head is rotated upward on its lateral horizontal axis the average location of the subjective horizon, though still depressed below the true objective, is higher than when rotation takes place in the opposite direction.  When the whole body is rotated backward through 45 deg. a positive displacement of large amount takes place in the case of all observers.  When the rotation extends to 90 deg., the body now reclining horizontally but with the head supported in a raised position to allow of free vision, an upward displacement occurs in the case of one of the two observers, and in that of the other a displacement in the opposite direction.  When change of position takes place in the head only, the mean variation is decidedly greater if the rotation be upward than if it be downward, its value in the former case being above, in the latter below that of the normal.  When the whole body is rotated backward through 45 deg. the mean variation is but slightly greater than under normal conditions; when the rotation is through 90 deg. it is much less.  A part of this reduction is probably due to training.  In general, it may be said that the disturbance of the normal body relations affects the location of the subjective horizon, but the specific nature and extent of this influence is left obscure by these experiments.  The ordinary movements of eyes and head are largely independent of one another, and even when closed the movements of the eyes do not always symmetrically follow those of the head.  The variations in the two processes have been measured by Muensterberg and Campbell[1] in reference to a single condition, namely, the relation of attention to and interest in the objects observed to the direction of sight in the closed eyes after movement of the head.  But apart from the influence of such secondary elements of ideational origin, there is reason to believe that the mere movement of the head from its normal position on the shoulders up or down, to one side or the other, is accompanied by compensatory motion of the eyes in an opposite direction, which tends to keep the axis of vision nearer to the primary position.  When the chin is elevated or depressed, this negative reflex adjustment is more pronounced and constant than when the movement is from side to side.  In the majority of cases the retrograde movement of the eyes does not equal the head movement in extent, especially if the latter be extreme.

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