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Theorie des affuts et des voitures de l’artillerie. Migout et Bergery
Artillerist’s Manual. Griffith.
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Sammlung von Steindruckzeichnungen der Preussischen Artillerie, mit Erlaeuterungen, (collection of plates of the Prussian artillery, with explanatory text.)
Histoire des fusees de guerre.
Ordnance Manual, for the use of the officers of the United States Army.
Experiments on Gunpowder. Capt. Mordecai.
Pyrotechny, for the use of the Cadets at the United States Military Academy. Kinsley.
Notes on Gunpowder, Percussion Powder, Cannon, and Projectiles. Lt. Knowlton.]
Engineers.—The term engineer is derived from the unclassical Latin word ingenium, which was applied both to a machine and the mind or skill of the person who devised or constructed it.
It was Philip Augustus, say the French writers, who first introduced engineers (engigneurs, or engignours, as they were called) into France, and restored the art of sieges. The engineers of that age were seldom charged with the construction of works of military defence, but, like Archimedes at Syracuse, and Longinus at Palmyra, they directed their attention principally to devising implements of war and the most effective manner of using them. Engines of war were at that time divided between the engigneurs and the artilliers; the former being charged with the heavier machines, and the latter with the smaller weapons used for throwing projectiles. After the invention of gunpowder, the old battering-rams, cranes, helipoles, &c., disappeared, and with them the engigneurs, or masters of engines. The new inventions were united with the few old projectile machines that remained in the artillery, and the engineers were for a time left almost without employment. The revival of the art of fortification was very slow, and the modern system scarcely began to be developed till near the sixteenth century.
We must omit for the present giving even an outline of the history of military engineering, and pass to the troops of this arm, as constituting an essential element of an army organization. The subject of fortification, and the history of its various changes, will be examined in the next chapter.
The engineers, in modern army organization, constitute the fourth arm of service, as, compared with artillery, their relative numbers are about as two to three. They are divided in the same manner as the artillery, viz.:—1st, the staff; 2d, guards, or fort-keepers; 3d, artificers; and 4th, the troops.