2. That there are many earths, and men upon them, and spirits and angels from them, is very well known in the other life; for in that life, every one who from a love of the truth and consequent use desires it, is allowed to speak with the spirits of other earths, so as to be convinced that there is a plurality of worlds, and informed that the human race is not from one earth only, but from numberless earths; and so as to be informed, besides, of what genius and life they are, and of what character their Divine worship is.
3. I have sometimes spoken on this subject with the spirits of our Earth, and it was said that a man of sound understanding may conclude, from many things which he knows, that there are more earths than one, and that there are human beings upon them. For it is an inference of reason, that such huge bodies as the planets are, some of which exceed this Earth in magnitude, are not empty bodies, created only to be carried and to rotate around the sun, and to shine with their scanty light (lumen) for the benefit of one earth only; but that they must needs have a nobler use than this. He who believes, as every one ought to believe, that the Divine created the universe for no other end than the existence of the human race, and of a heaven from it (for the human race is the seminary of heaven), cannot but believe that wherever there is an earth, there are human beings. That the planets, which are visible to our eyes, being within the boundaries of this solar system, are earths, may be clearly seen from the following considerations. They are bodies of earthy matter, because they reflect the sun’s light (lumen), and, when seen through the telescope, appear, not as stars shining from their flame, but as earths (terrae) variegated with dark spots. Like our Earth, they are carried round the sun and advance progressively through the path of the zodiac, which motion causes years, and seasons of the year, which are spring, summer, autumn, and winter. They likewise rotate upon their own axis, just as our Earth does, and this rotation causes days, and times of the day, that is, morning, mid-day, evening, and night. And moreover, some of them also have moons, which are called satellites, which perform their revolutions around their globes in stated times, as the moon does around ours. The planet Saturn, because it is so very far distant from the sun, has also a great luminous ring, which supplies that earth with much, although reflected, light. How is it possible for any one who is acquainted with these facts, and thinks from reason, to assert that such bodies are uninhabited?