Josias Ibach Stada (Vol. i., p. 452.).—In reply to G.E.N., I would ask, is Mr. Hewitt correct in calling him Stada, an Italian artist? I have no hesitation in saying that Stada here is no personal appellation at all, but the name of a town. The inscription “Fudit Josias Ibach Stada Bremensis” is to be read, Cast by Josias Ibach, of the town of Stada, in the duchy of Bremen. All your readers, particularly mercantile, will know the place well enough from the discussions raised by Mr. Hutt, member for Gateshead, in the House of Commons, on the oppressive duties levied there on all vessels and their cargoes sailing past it up the Elbe; and to the year 1150 it was the capital of an independent graffschaft, when it lapsed to Henry the Lion.
The Temple, or A Temple.—I have had an opportunity of seeing the edition of Chaucer referred to by your correspondent P.H.F. (Vol. i., p. 420.), and likewise several other black-letter editions (1523, 1561, 1587, 1598, 1602), and find that they all agree in reading “the temple,” which Caxton’s edition also adopts. The general reading of “temple” in the modern editions, naturally induced me to suspect that Tyrwhitt had made the alteration on the authority of the manuscripts of the poem. Of these there are no less than ten in the British Museum, all of which have been kindly examined for me. One of these wants the prologue, and another that part of it in which the line occurs; but in seven of the remaining eight, the reading is—
“A gentil maunciple was ther of a temple;”
while one only reads “the temple.” The question, therefore, is involved in the same doubt which I at first stated; for the subsequent lines quoted by P.H.F. prove nothing more than that the person described was a manciple in some place of legal resort, which was not disputed.
Bawn (Vol. i., p. 440.).—If your Querist regarding a “Bawn” will look into Macnevin’s Confiscation of Ulster (Duffy: Dublin, 1846, p. 171. &c.), he will find that a Bawn must have been a sort of court-yard, which might be used on emergency as a fortification for defence. They were constructed either of lime and stone, of stone and clay, or of sods, and twelve to fourteen feet high, and sometimes inclosing a dwelling-house, and with the addition of “flankers.”
“Heigh ho! says Rowley” (Vol. i., p. 458.).—The burden of “Heigh ho! says Rowley” is certainly older than R.S.S. conjectures; I will not say how much, but it occurs in a jeu d’esprit of 1809, on the installation of Lord Grenville, as Chancellor, at Oxford, as will be shown by a stanza cited from memory:—