[Footnote 14: Ahiasaf, iv.; Gordon, op. cit., i. xxi; Razsvyet, 1882, i.; Magil’s Kobez (Collection), no. 3, p. 45.]
[Footnote 15: Ha-Meliz, 1899, no. 256; 1901, no. 2; weekly Voskhod, 1893, no. 40; monthly Voskhod, 1894, iv. Some Jewish financiers erected gymnasia in Vilna and Warsaw, improved the condition of the hadarim, and turned many Talmud Torahs into technical schools. Of the Lodz Talmud Torah a writer says that “no Jewish community, even outside of Russia, possesses such an institution, not excepting the Hirsch schools in Galicia.”]
[Footnote 16: London, Unter juedischen Proletariern, 1898, pp. 81-83; Bramson, K Istorii, etc., pp. 63-69, 71-74; Ha-Meliz, xli., no. 246 (1901, no, 35); Ha-Zefirah, xxix., no. 285; and the Jewish Gazette, July 16, 1909 (Kunst und Nationalismus). The Ha-Zamir (a choral society), founded in Lodz by Nissan Schapira, counts its members by the thousands.]
[Footnote 17: London, op. cit, pp. 64-74; Ha-Meliz, 1900, nos. 192-193; Rubinow, op. cit., pp. 530-532, 548-553, 561-566.]
[Footnote 18: Ha-Meliz, 1901, nos. 20, 27, 36, 54, 95.]
[Footnote 19: Atlas, Mah Lefanim u-mah Leaher, pp. 53 f.; Ha-Meliz, 1900, no. 47; 1901, no. 27.]
[Footnote 20: Ha-Meliz, 1901, no. 87.]
[Footnote 21: Reflexions sur l’etat des israelites russes, Odessa, 1871, pp. 121-122.]
[Footnote 22: Kayserling, Die juedischen Frauen, Leipsic, 1879, pp. 306-313; Rubinow, op. cit., p. 581. The Russian Jewess has already produced several writers above the average (Einhorn, Mosessohn, Ben Yehudah, Sarah and Eva Schapira) in Hebrew, has given Russian literature at least one novelist of note (Rachel Khin), has furnished leaders in the movement for the emancipation of women (Maria Saker), and especially for the liberation of Russia (Finger, Helfman, Levinsohn, Novinsky, Rabinovich). According to Mr. Rabinow, the Russo-Jewish “women and girls use every available means” to obtain an education, and at least fifty per cent of them possess a knowledge of Russian in addition to their vernacular Yiddish.]
An asterisk (*) marks a book or periodical of especial importance.
Antin, The Promised Land, Boston and New York, 1912.
Atlas, Mah Lefanim u-mah Leaher, Warsaw, 1898.
Baskerville, The Polish Jew, New York, 1906.
Ben Sion, Yevreyi Reformatory, St. Petersburg, 1882.
Bentwich, The Progress of Zionism, New York, 1899.
Bernfeld, Dor Tahapukot, Warsaw, 1897.
Bershadsky, Zhurnal Ministerstva Narodnaho Prosvyeshchaniya,
Bersohn, Tobiasz Cohn, Warsaw, 1872.
Blaustein, Memoirs, New York, 1813, pt. I.
Brafmann, Kniga Kahala, Vilna, 1869.
Brainin, Perez ben Moses Smolenskin, Warsaw, 1896.
Bramson, K Istorii Pervonachalnaho Obrazovaniya Russkikh Yevreyev, St. Petersburg, 1896.