The Haskalah Movement in Russia eBook

This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 216 pages of information about The Haskalah Movement in Russia.

[Footnote 42:  Read the vivid description in WMG, p. 147.]

[Footnote 43:  Occident, ii. 563-564.]

[Footnote 44:  Uvarov’s opinion of the Talmud was “razvrashchal i raz-vrashchayet” ("it has been degrading and is degrading").  Nicholas granted special privileges to the Karaites, and claimed they were the genuine Israelites, chiefly because they did not follow the precepts of the Talmud.]

[Footnote 45:  Occident, ii. 562-563.]

[Footnote 46:  See Loewe, Diaries of Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore, London, 1890, i. 100, 231, 311-312, passim; Guenzburg, Debir, ii. 99-108; (Dick), Ha-Oreah, Koenigsberg, 1860.]

[Footnote 47:  Guenzburg, op. cit., pp. 115-117, 122-125; Leket Amarim (suppl. to Ha-Meliz), St. Petersburg, 1887, pp. 81-86; AZJ, ix. nos. 46-50; x. nos. 5, 49, etc.; Jastrow, op. cit., p. 12, Lubliner, De la condition politique .... dans le royaume de Pologne, Brussels, 1860 (especially pp. 44-45).]

[Footnote 48:  GMC, no. 255.]

CHAPTER IV

CONFLICTS AND CONQUESTS

1840-1855

(pp. 162-221)

[Footnote 1:  Diakov states that “when the population degenerated in West Russia, business and industry declined, and the number of the rich greatly diminished, while the nobles, embittered against the Government, did absolutely nothing for their country, the Jews formed an exception....  There is no doubt that they are doing their utmost for the regeneration of our land, despite the restrictions heaped upon them without any cause” (Elk, op. cit., p. 41 seq.).  Surovyetsky likewise maintains that “after the devastation of Poland because of the numerous wars, the ruining of so many cities, and the almost total extermination of their inhabitants ... the Jews alone effected the regeneration of our trade.  They alone upheld our tottering industries ....  We may safely affirm that without them, without their characteristic mobility, we should never have recovered our commerce and wealth” (Jastrow, op. cit., p. 12).]

[Footnote 2:  See AZJ, April 29, 1844, and Orient, 1844, P-224, in which the correspondent adds:  “It is a touching sight to see these laborers (as longshoremen), for the most part aged, perform their fatiguing duties in the streets during the hottest seasons, endeavoring to lighten their heavy burdens by the repetition of Biblical and Talmudic passages.”]

[Footnote 3:  Ozar ha-Sifrut, 1877; Annalen, 1839, pp. 345-346, and 1841, no. 31.  Bikkure ha-’Ittim, 1821, pp. 168-172; FSL, p. 150; Paperna, Ha-Derammah (Eichenbaum’s letter); Ha-Boker Or, 1879, pp. 691-698; Occident, v. 255; Pirhe Zafon, ii. 216-217; Ha-Maggid, 1863, p. 348; Orient, 1841, p. 266; Lapin, Keset ha-Sofer, Berlin, 1857, p. 8, and Morgulis, op. cit., p. 48.]

[Footnote 4:  Jost, Culturgeschichte, pp. 308-309; Morgulis, op. cit., p. 27; Atlas, Mah Lefanim u-mah Leaher, Warsaw, 1898, pp. 44 f.]

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