Thou shalt take a saint’s pure image to the battlefield,
Look upon it when thou prayest, may it be thy shield.
And when battles fierce are raging, give one thought to me;
Sleep, my darling, calmly, sweetly, sleep, I sing to thee.
See Guedemann, Quellen zur Geschichte des Unterrichts, Berlin, 1891, pp. 285-286; Ha-Boker Or, i. 315 (on Dubno); Ha-Meliz, 1894, no. 254 (on Mohilev); Zunz, Gottesdienstliche Vortraege, pp. 122g and 470a; cf. Weiss, Zikronotai, Warsaw, 1895, pp. 53-83.]
[Footnote 40: Cf. Guedemann, Geschichte des Erziehungswesens, iii. 94, n., and see Dembitzer, Kelilat Yofi, Introduction, and Meassef, St. Petersburg, 1902, p. 205, n.]
DAYS OF TRANSITION
[Footnote 1: JE, s.v. Bratzlav.]
[Footnote 2: In the diary of a Polish squire we find the following item: “Jan. 5. As the lessee Herszka had not yet paid me the rental of 91 gulden, I went to his house to get my debt. According to the contract, I can arrest him and his wife for as long as I wish, until he settles the bill, and so I ordered him locked up in the pig-sty and left his wife and his sons in the inn. The youngest son, however, I took with me to the palace to be instructed in the rudiments of our religion. The boy is unusually bright and shall be baptized. I already wrote to our priest concerning it, and he promised to come to prepare him. Leisza at first stubbornly refused to make the sign of the cross and repeat our prayers, but Strelicki administered a sound whipping, and to-day he even ate ham. Our venerable priest Bonapari ... is inventing all manner of means to break his stiff-neckedness.” Meassef, St. Petersburg, 1902, pp. 192-193.]
[Footnote 3: See Wolkonsky, Pictures of Russian History and Literature, Boston, 1897, p. 136.]
[Footnote 4: Orshansky, in Yevreyskaya Biblyotyeka, ii. 207.]
[Footnote 5: Meassef, St. Petersburg, 1902, p. 195; Beck and Brann, Yevreyskaya Istoriya, p. 326; JE, iv. 155; xi. 113.]
[Footnote 6: Meassef, p. 200. On Russia at the time of Peter the Great, see Macaulay, History of England, ch. xxiii., where he describes the “savage ignorance and the squalid poverty of the barbarous country.” In that country “there was neither literature nor science, neither school nor college. It was not till more than a hundred years after the invention of printing that a single printing-press had been introduced into the Russian empire, and that printing-press speedily perished in a fire, which was supposed to have been kindled by priests.” When Pyoter Vyeliki (Peter the Great), while in London, saw the archiepiscopal library, he declared that “he had never imagined that there were so many printed volumes in the world.” See also Carlyle, History of Frederick the Great, iv. 7.]