The Economic Consequences of the Peace eBook

This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 239 pages of information about The Economic Consequences of the Peace.

[53] 21,136,265 tons out of a total of 28,607,903 tons.  The loss of iron-ore in respect of Upper Silesia is insignificant.  The exclusion of the iron and steel of Luxemburg from the German Customs Union is, however, important, especially when this loss is added to that of Alsace-Lorraine.  It may be added in passing that Upper Silesia includes 75 per cent of the zinc production of Germany.

[54] In April, 1919, the British Ministry of Munitions despatched an expert Commission to examine the conditions of the iron and steel works in Lorraine and the occupied areas of Germany.  The Report states that the iron and steel works in Lorraine, and to a lesser extent in the Saar Valley, are dependent on supplies of coal and coke from Westphalia.  It is necessary to mix Westphalian coal with Saar coal to obtain a good furnace coke.  The entire dependence of all the Lorraine iron and steel works upon Germany for fuel supplies “places them,” says the Report, “in a very unenviable position.”

[55] Arts. 264, 265, 266, and 267.  These provisions can only be extended beyond five years by the Council of the League of Nations.

[56] Art. 268 (a).

[57] Art. 268 (b) and (c).

[58] The Grand Duchy is also deneutralized and Germany binds herself to “accept in advance all international arrangements which may be concluded by the Allied and Associated Powers relating to the Grand Duchy” (Art. 40).  At the end of September, 1919, a plebiscite was held to determine whether Luxemburg should join the French or the Belgian Customs Union, which decided by a substantial majority in favour of the former.  The third alternative of the maintenance of the union with Germany was not left open to the electorate.

[59] Art. 269.

[60] Art. 270.

[61] The occupation provisions may be conveniently summarized at this point.  German territory situated west of the Rhine, together with the bridge-heads, is subject to occupation for a period of fifteen years (Art. 428).  If, however, “the conditions of the present Treaty are faithfully carried out by Germany,” the Cologne district will be evacuated after five years, and the Coblenz district after ten years (Art. 429).  It is, however, further provided that if at the expiration of fifteen years “the guarantees against unprovoked aggression by Germany are not considered sufficient by the Allied and Associated Governments, the evacuation of the occupying troops may be delayed to the extent regarded as necessary for the purpose of obtaining the required guarantees” (Art. 429); and also that “in case either during the occupation or after the expiration of the fifteen years, the Reparation Commission finds that Germany refuses to observe the whole or part of her obligations under the present Treaty with regard to Reparation, the whole or part of the areas specified in Article 429 will be re-occupied immediately by the Allied and Associated Powers” (Art. 430).  Since

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