22. VanDenburg, J.K. The Elimination of Pupils from Public Secondary Schools, p. 113.
23. Slattery, M. The Girl in Her Teens, p. 20.
24. Wooley, H.T. “Facts About the Working Children of Cincinnati,” Elementary School Teacher, 14:135.
25. Report of Commission on Industrial and Technical Education (Mass.), 1906, p. 92.
26. Barrows, Alice P. Report of Vocational Guidance Survey (New York City), Public Education Association, New York City, Bull. No. 9, 1912.
27. Holley, C.E. The Relationship Between Persistence in School and Home Conditions, Fifteenth Yearbook, Pt. II, p. 98.
28. Bliss, D.C. “High School Failures,” Educational Administration and Supervision, Vol. III.
29. Annual Report of Board of Education, Paterson, 1915.
30. Wood, J.W. “A Study of Failures,” School and Society, I, 679.
31. Johnson, F.W. “A Study of High School Grades,” School Review, 19-13.
32. Strayer, G.D., Coffman, L.D., Prosser, C.A. Report of a Survey of the School System of St. Paul, 1917.
HOW MUCH IS THE GRADUATION OR THE PERSISTENCE IN SCHOOL CONDITIONED BY THE OCCURRENCE OR THE NUMBER OF FAILURES?
1. COMPARISON OF THE FAILING AND THE NON-FAILING GROUPS IN REFERENCE TO GRADUATION AND PERSISTENCE
It has been noted in section 1 of Chapter II that 58.1 per cent of all the graduates have school failures. Here we mean to carry the analysis and comparison in reference to graduation and failure somewhat further. To this end the following distribution is significant.
DISTRIBUTION OF PUPILS IN REFERENCE TO FAILURE AND GRADUATION
The Non-failing The Failing Pupils—Graduating Pupils—Graduating
Totals 2568 811 (31.5%) 3573 1125 (31.5%) Boys 1001 307 (30.6%) 1645 489 (29.7%) Girls 1567 504 (32.1%) 1928 639 (33.0%)
We have presented here the numbers that graduate without failures, together with the total group to which they belong, and the same for the graduates who have failed. By a mere process of subtraction we may determine the number of non-graduates, as well as the number of these that fail, and then compute the percentage of the non-graduates who fail. Thus we get 58.2 per cent (boys—62.5, girls—54.9) as the percentage of the non-graduates failing. It is apparent at once that this is almost identical with the percentage of failure for the ones who graduate (Chapter II), but for the non-graduates the boys and girls are a little further apart. It may be remarked in this connection that no effort was made to include any of the 808 non-credited pupils among the ones who fail. The inclusion of 60 per cent of this number as potentially failing pupils, as was done in Chapter II, will raise the above percentage of failing non-graduates by 11.5 per cent.