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New Latin Grammar eBook

Charles Edwin Bennett
This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 240 pages of information about New Latin Grammar.

  ei, quos inter erat, those among whom he was.

Anastrophe occurs chiefly with dissyllabic prepositions.

CONJUNCTIONS AND INTERJECTIONS.

145. 1.  Conjunctions are used to connect ideas.  For Cooerdinate Conjunctions, see Sec. 341 ff.  Subordinate Conjunctions are treated in connection with Subordinate Clauses.

2.  Interjections express emotion.  Thus:—­

1.  Surprise; as, en, ecce, o. 2.  Joy; as, io, euoe. 3.  Sorrow and Pain; as, heu, eheu, vae, pro. 4.  Calling; as, heus, eho.

* * * * *

PART IV.

* * * * *

WORD-FORMATION.

* * * * *

I. DERIVATIVES.

146.  Derivatives are formed by appending certain terminations called Suffixes to stems of verbs, nouns, or adjectives.

A. NOUNS.

1.  Nouns derived from Verbs.

147. 1.  The suffix -tor (-sor), Fem. -trix, denotes the agent; as,—­

  victor, victrix, victor; defensor, defender.

NOTE.—­The suffix -tor is occasionally appended to noun stems; as,—­

  gladiator, gladiator (from gladius).

2.  The suffix -or (originally -os) denotes an activity or a condition; as,—­

  amor, love; timor, fear; dolor, pain.

3.  The suffixes -tio (-sio), Gen. -onis, and -tus (-sus), Gen. -us, denote an action as in process; as,—­

  venatio, hunting; obsessio, blockade; gemitus, sighing; cursus,
  running.

NOTE.—­Rarer endings with the same force are:—­

  a) -tura, -sura; as,—­

    sepultura, burial; mensura, measuring.

  b) -ium; as,—­

    gaudium, rejoicing.

c) -ido; as,—­

cupido, desire.

4.  The suffixes -men, -mentum, -crum, -trum, -bulum, -culum, denote the means or place of an action; as,—­

lumen (luc-s-men), light; vocabulum, word;
ornamentum, ornament; documentum, proof;
sepulcrum, grave; aratrum, plough;

                                  vehiculum, carriage.

2.  Nouns derived from Nouns.

148. 1.  Diminutives end in—­

-ulus, (-ula, -ulum) -olus, (-ola, -olum), after a vowel -culus, (-cula, -culum) -ellus, (-ella, -ellum) -illus, (-illa, -illum)

as,—­

nidulus, little nest (nidus); virgula, wand (virga); oppidulum, little town (oppidum); filiolus, little son (filius); opusculum, little work (opus); tabella, tablet (tabula); lapillus, pebble (lapis).

NOTE 1.—­It will be observed that in gender the Diminutives follow the gender of the words from which they are derived.

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