New Latin Grammar eBook

Charles Edwin Bennett
This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 322 pages of information about New Latin Grammar.



362.  The general principles for the quantity of vowels and syllables have been given above in Sec. 5.  The following peculiarities are to be noted here:—­

1.  A vowel is usually short when followed by another vowel (Sec. 5, A, 2), but the following exceptions occur:—­

  a) In the Genitive termination -ius (except alterius); as, illius,
  totius.  Yet the i may be short in poetry; as, illius, totius.

  b) In the Genitive and Dative Singular of the Fifth Declension; as, diei,
  aciei.  But fidei, rei, spei (Sec. 52, 1).

  c) In fio, excepting fit and forms where i is followed by er.  Thus: 
  fiebam, fiat, fiunt; but fieri, fierem.

  d) In a few other words, especially words derived from the Greek; as,
  dius, Aeneas, Darius, heroes, etc.

2.  A diphthong is usually long (Sec. 5, B, 2), but the preposition prae in composition is often shortened before a vowel; as, praeacutus.

3.  A syllable containing a short vowel followed by two consonants (Sec. 5, B, 2) is long, even when one of the consonants is in the following word; as, terret populum.  Occasionally the syllable is long when both consonants are in the following word; as, pro segete spicas.

4.  Compounds of jacio, though written inicit, adicit, etc., have the first syllable long, as though written inj-, adj-.

5.  Before j, a and e made a long syllable, e.g. in major, pejor, ejus, ejusdem, Pompejus, rejecit, etc.  These were pronounced, mai-jor, pei-jor, ei-jus, Pompei-jus, rei-jecit, etc.  So also sometimes before i, e.g.  Pompe-i, pronounced Pompei-i; re-icio, pronounced rei-icio.

Quantity of Final Syllables.

A.  Final Syllables ending in a Vowel.

363. 1.  Final a is mostly short, but is long:—­

  a) In the Ablative Singular of the First Declension; as, porta.

  b) In the Imperative; as, lauda.

  c) In indeclinable words (except ita, quia); as, triginta, contra,
  postea, interea, etc.

2.  Final e is usually short, but is long:—­

  a) In the Ablative Singular of the Fifth Declension; as, die, re; hence
  hodie, quare.  Here belongs also fame (Sec. 59, 2, b).

  b) In the Imperative of the Second Conjugation; as, mone, habe, etc.; yet
  occasionally cave, vale.

  c) In Adverbs derived from Adjectives of the Second Declension, along
  with fere and ferme.  Bene, male, temere, saepe have e.

  d) In e, de, me, te, se, ne (not, lest), ne (verily).

3.  Final i is usually long, but is short in nisi and quasi.  Mihi, tibi, sibi, ibi, ubi, have regularly i, but sometimes i; yet always ibidem, ibique, ubique.

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New Latin Grammar from Project Gutenberg. Public domain.
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