The San Francisco calamity by earthquake and fire eBook

Charles W. Morris
This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 368 pages of information about The San Francisco calamity by earthquake and fire.

After this frightful eruption, no serious volcanic disturbance took place in Iceland until 1845, when Mount Hecla again became disastrously active.  Mount Hecla has been the most frequent in its eruptions of any of the Icelandic volcanoes.  Previous to 1845 there had been twenty-two recorded eruptions of this mountain, since the discovery of Iceland in the ninth century; while from all the other volcanoes in the island there had been only twenty during the same period.  Hecla has more than once remained in activity for six years at a time—­a circumstance that has rendered it the best known of the volcanoes of this region.


After enjoying a long rest of seventy-nine years, this volcano burst again into violent activity in the beginning of September, 1845.  The first inkling of this eruption was conveyed to the British Islands by a fall of volcanic ashes in the Orkneys, which occurred on the night of September 2nd during a violent storm.  This palpable hint was soon confirmed by direct intelligence from Copenhagen.  On the 1st of September a severe earthquake, followed the same night by fearful subterranean noises, alarmed the inhabitants and gave warning of what was to come.  About noon the next day, with a dreadful crash, there opened in the sides of the volcano two new mouths, whence two great streams of glowing lava poured forth.  They fortunately flowed down the northern and northwestern sides of the mountain, where the low grounds are mere barren heaths, affording a scanty pasture for a few sheep.  These were driven before the fiery stream, but several of them were burnt before they could escape.  The whole mountain was enveloped in clouds of volcanic ashes and vapors.  The rivers near the lava currents became so hot as to kill the fish, and to be impassable even on horseback.

About a fortnight later there was a fresh eruption, of greater violence, which lasted twenty-two hours, and was accompanied by detonations so loud as to be heard over the whole island.  Two new craters were formed, one on the southern, the other on the eastern slope of the cone.  The lava issuing from these craters flowed to a distance of more than twenty-two miles.  At about two miles from its source the fiery stream was a mile wide, and from 40 to 50 feet deep.  It destroyed a large extent of fine pasture and many cattle.  Nearly a month later, on the 15th of October, a fresh flood of lava burst from the southern crater, and soon heaped up a mass at the foot of the mountain from 40 to 60 feet in height, three great columns of vapor, dust and ashes rising at the same time from the three new craters of the volcano.  The mountain continued in a state of greater or less activity during most of the next year; and even as late as the month of October, 1846, after a brief pause, it began again with renewed vehemence.  The volumes of dust, ashes and vapor, thrown up from the craters, and brightly illuminated by the glowing lava beneath, assumed the appearance of flames, and ascended to an immense height.

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The San Francisco calamity by earthquake and fire from Project Gutenberg. Public domain.
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